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(lumbering icon)1925

There were only twelve men in camp that first winter, with three yoke of oxen. The camp building, for both eating and sleeping, was small, with low walls. In the middle was a low platform of earth called the "caboose," on which the fire, for both cooking and heating purposes, was made. Above the caboose was a large opening in the roof to allow the smoke to escape. The roof was made of "shakes," which were thin pieces of pine about four feet long laid on poles which ran lengthwise the building. No nails were used, but the shakes were held in place by other poles laid on the shakes over the lower poles, the ends of the upper and lower poles being bound together with birch withes. The shakes were then covered with clay, and this when frozen was covered with spruce or hemlock boughs to prevent the clay thawing in mild weather.