First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Noah, son of Lamech, the tenth from Adam, was born according to Genesis, in the 182nd year of his father, and, according to the Hebrew, in the 1056th year of the world, but according to the writings of Orosius,[Paulus Orosius, historian and theologian, was born in Spain toward the close of the fourth century, and flourished about 415. His was undertaken at the suggestion of Augustine, to whom it was dedicated. Beside the Old and the New Testament he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus, and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome’s translation of the of Eusebius.] Bede,[Bede, or Beda, (673-735), commonly called “the Venerable Bede,” was an English monk and known as “the father of English learning.” He was the author of an . For his biography see Folio CLVIII verso and note.] and the LXX,[The Seventy, briefly written LXX, or more exactly 72, translators were sent from Jerusalem to Alexandria by the high priest Eleazar, at the request of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) (288-247 BCE) to translate the Old Testament into the Greek. This was the earliest Greek translation and is called the Septuagint (Latin , LXX.). The king’s share in the business was quite secondary, but we know that he was a ruler of eclectic literary tastes, and that he may well have encouraged an enterprise that not only appealed to his own curiosity, but would promote the use of Greek among the large Jewish population of the city. That population had been steadily increasing, and while loyal to the Hebrew faith, had lost its knowledge of the Hebrew tongue. Faced by sheer necessity, the pious Jews of Alexandria were resolved to understand the Scriptures read in their own synagogues, and they overcame the age long prejudice of the authorities at Jerusalem against the writing of Scripture in any language but Hebrew. The early Christians generally accepted the LXX canon.] in the 1642nd year of the world. His name signifies “rest,” for under him all things rested after the flood, and he first conceived tillage of the soil with beasts of the field. Accordingly it is written that he will comfort us in our labors, etc.; for at first the people themselves plowed, but afterward the beasts tilled the soil. Noah was a farmer, and Augustine[St. Augustine (354-430), Latin Father of the Church, was born in Numidia, and became bishop of Hippo, Africa. For his biography see Folio CXXXVI recto and note.] elevates farming to a sacred occupation, a labor set up by God above all other handicrafts, dignities and arts.[ The name Noah signifies “rest.” Noah was the ninth in descent from Adam, according to Genesis 5:3-30.]

From Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three Sons of Noah, seventy-two peoples descended; and to symbolize these, the Lord Jesus sent seventy-two disciples before him. Augustine says that many others were born who are not remembered, for although they exceeded others in the number of their descendants, they did not create nations. The names of some of these people survived, and we know whence they came—such as the Assyrians out of Asshur, the Hebrews out of Heber. Some were changed or altered in the course of time to such an extent that the most learned and informed historians have been able to trace but a few of these peoples to their origin. All things considered, more names were changed than remained.

Jonicus, fourth son of Noah, was born in the third year of the Flood; but as to him Moses is silent. Jonicus first discovered the science of astronomy, and he prophesied future events. After his father had endowed him he went to the land of Etham, and there he lived and originated a people; and this is the land, called the Land of the Sun, to which went a number of distinguished men, Sons of Japhoth. And Jonicus built a city called Heliopolis.[Heliopolis (City of the Sun) was a celebrated city of Syria and chief seat of the worship of Baal, one of whose symbols was the sun which the Greeks identified with Apollo as well as with Zeus; hence the Greek name of the city. Its location made it a place of great commercial importance, being the direct route from Egypt and the Red Sea and from Tyre to Syria, Asia Minor, and Europe. Hence the wealth of the city, to which its ruins still testify. The priests of Heliopolis were renowned for their learning.] It is said that he also advised Nimrod how to rule. He was a man celebrated for his ingenuity and a great observer of the stars, their courses and attributes; wherefore he prognosticated and preached the origin and decline of the four principal empires. His son Cosdron survived him.

Cush was Ham’s son, from whom (according to Josephus) sprang the Ethiopians. These were first called Cushites, but later Ethiopians. From them Ethiopia derived its name. This is beyond the country called Mauretania, and there, in the East, lies the Great Desert. Of Canaan, the son of Ham, were born[No mention is made of Sidon, the first born. Heth was the ancestor of the Hittites, who, in the time of Abraham, occupied the hill country about Hebron. They afterwards spread northward and their name became synonymous with Canaanite. The Jebusites, a mountain tribe, dwelt in Hebus, afterward Mount Zion. After countless centuries of independence they were finally subdued by David. The Amorites were the most powerful and widespread of the Canaanitish tribes. They founded powerful kingdoms on both banks of the Jordan, the eastern Amorites being conquered by Moses, and the western by Joshua. The Hivites were a people who lived in Shechem in the time of Japheth. Their chief seat at the time of the conquest of Canaan seems to have been northwestern Palestine, about Hermon and Lebanon. The Girgasites were a tribe of whom, as Josephus says, only the name remains. The Arkites dwelt on the Mediterranean north of Sidon. Their name is still preserved in the modern Arka, famous as the birthplace of the emperor Alexander Severus. Its ruins are scattered about a lofty mound twelve miles north of Tripoli. The Sinites seem to have left their relics in the mountain fortress of Sinna, mentioned by Strabo, and the town of Sini, or Syn, north of Arka. The Arvadites inhabited the island of Arvad or Arad, and the adjacent shore. Arvad was a rocky island fortress, two miles from the shore, north of Arka and Sini. It was colonized from Sidon, and was the mother of Tarsus, ranking at one time next to Tyre. It is still inhavited by a maritime population bearing the name of Ruad, and retains some well preserved remnants of Phoenician walls. The Zemarites have not been identified by any historical or geographical traces. Perhaps the town of Sumra, or Shoumra, at the foot of Lebanon, between Arka and the sea, is one of the memorials of this tribe. The Hamathites inhabited Hamath, or Chamath Rabba, that is, Chamath the Great, a city on the Orontes, now known by the same name, in the great valley between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. This valley is known in the Old Testament as “the entering in of Hamath,” and formed the northern boundary of the promised land. These descendants of Canaan are set forth in Genesis 10:15-18.] Etheus (Heth), Jebusius (Jebusite), Amoreus (Amorite), Gergeseus (Girgashite), Eveus (Hivite). and Archeus (Arkite); and after each of them certain people is named; as for Eteus, the Hittites; for Jebusius, the Jebusites; for Amoreus, the Amorites; for Gergeseus, the Girgasites; for Eveus, the Hivites, or Gabaonites; (for Areheus, the Arkites). Archeus built the city of Arka, below Mount Libanus. From Canaan, the first son of Ham, came the Canaanites; and Canaan had eleven sons, who inhabited the country of the Canaanites, the promised land (now Judea), and called Canaan after him. Cineus (Sinite). Aradius, after whom were named the Arvadites, who possessed the island of Aradus, which is separated from Phoenicia by a small sea. Zemarite, of whom came the noble city of Simyra, which is called Aeolis. Amatheus, after whom the Hamathites are named. Of Phut, the second son of Ham, came Libya, the country; Atlante, the mountain of Mauretania, and after him the country was called Phut.[Phut, progenitor of the African people, was the third son of Ham. In the wide sense of the word Phut is synonymous with Libya, or Libyans. Jeremiah (46:9) associates Phut (Libyans) with Cush (Ethiopians) as rising up against Pharaoh-necho. Atlante refers to Mount Atlas, and is used as a designation of West African Libya. Atlas is a high mountain in Mauretania, on which heaven was said to rest.] Of Mizraim, the third son, came the Egyptians, also called Mizraim, after their prince.[ “And Mizraim begat Ludin, and Namim, and Lehebim, and Naphtuhin, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim,” (Genesis 10:13-14). The descendants of Mizraim formed the Egyptian nation, and Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt and Egyptian. It is a geographical word meaning narrows, a narrow strip of verdure threaded by the Nile.] Lydia and the Lydians were named after Lidin, and there is St. John’s seat.[Lydia is not in Africa nor in Egypt, but in Asia Minor and is out of place at this point of the text. “Lidin” no doubt refers to Lud, fourth son of Shem, and not a son of Ham, and who is probably the progenitor of the Lydians of Asia Minor. The first son of Mizraim was Ludim, and his tribe was a warlike people of Mauretania, associated by the prophets with the Libyans and Ethiopians. John the Evangelist made Ephesus the center of his operations, and it lies in Lydia.] From Anamim came the Anamites;[The Anamites inhabited the Nile Delta.] From Lehabim[The Lehabim were Egyptian Libyans who dwelt on the west of the Nile Delta. Nahum and Daniel associate them with the Ethiopians. All these names ending in im are plurals.] came the Cubarii, and other unknown peoples exterminated by the Ethiopian wars; and their names have been lost.[In addition to the descendants of Mizraim specifically mentioned, Genesis gives the Naphtuhim, or Middle Egyptians; they were the people of Ptah, the name of an Egyptian god, whose dwelling was Memphis; Pathrusim, inhabitants of Pathros, an Egyptian word meaning southern region, Upper Egyptian; Casluhim, Northeast Egyptians, in the region of Mount Casius; Caphtorim, the Copts of modern Egypt.] Mizraim, the second son of Ham, was the progenitor of seven peoples, of whom the sixth were the Palestinians. Their land is Syria, bordering on Arabia, and from the city of Philistia they were called Philistines.[According to Genesis the Philistines came out of Casluhim, the sixth descendant of Mizraim. They are the Palestinians, as Philistia was the original Palestine, a name which afterward came to mean the same as Canaan. Amos (9:7) and Jeremiah (47:4) describe the Philistines as coming from Caphtor. Knobel believes the Philistines to have been descendants of Shem through Lud.] From Sabtah came the Sabatha, by the Greeks called Astabari.[This begins the line of Cush, whose sons were Sebah, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtechah, and the sons of Raamah, namely Sheba and Dedan; and Cush also begat Nimrod (Genesis 10:7-8). The Sebah were the inhabitants of Meroe of the Upper Nile, situated on the peninsula formed by the Astaboras and the Nile.] Raumah (Rhegma) had two sons, and thereafter the Sabatha lost their old name. From them originated Ethiopian races in the West. From Saba came the Sabii—Arabs, and from them Arabia, and they live by the Libyan Mountains. From Dada came Ethiopians. Havilah was the other son of Gush, who was a son of Ham; and after him were named the Havilites and the Getuli, who live in the remote parts of Africa, Nimrod, the other son of Cush, who was a son of Ham, was a giant of great stature, and the most daring of the sons of Noah. He fomented trouble with the Babylonians.[The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. We are here concerned with the issue of Cush, namely, Sebah, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtechah, and Nimrod. The chronicler seems confused in the names, which in some instances are very similar. The sons of Cush were the Cushite Ethiopians and Arabians. The Sebah, as already stated, were the inhabitants of Meroe of the Upper Nile, situated on the peninsula formed by the Astaboras and the Nile. The Havilah were the Macrobian Ethiopians, who dwelt in what is now Abyssinia. There was also a Shemitic Havilah in Arabia. The Sabtah were the progenitors of the Ethiopians of Hadramont in South Arabia, and their chief city was Sabta, Sabota, or Sabotha. The name Raamah still remains in southeastern Arabia, the Rhegma of the old geographers, where, according to Pliny and Ptolemy, dwelt a fish-eating people. The sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan (Genesis 10:7). The Cushite Sheba was on the Persian Gulf, traces of which may perhaps be found in the modern Saba, the thoroughfare of the Hebrew commerce with India. Dedan is probably traceable in Dodan on the east coast of Arabia. The Sabtechah are the dark-skinned Carmanians. They had a river and a city called Sabis. As distinguished from the preceding tribal or place names, that of Nimrod is clearly that of a person, a mighty hunter. He was an Asiatic Cushite.]