First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Buda is a highly celebrated and renowned city in the kingdom of Hungary, and the seat of the kings is there. It is located on the banks of the Danube. Hungary comprises vast lands on either side of it. What lies to the east of the Danube was at one time Pannonia,[Pannonia was a country bounded on the north and east by the Danube, co-terminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BCE, when its inhabitants, who had taken up arms in support of the Dalmationas, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sissek). In the fifth century Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II; but after the death of Attila it passed into the hands of the Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Avars. In upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Arrabona (Raab), a military station; and Savaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius. In lower Pannonia were Sirmium and Sopianae (Fuenfkirchen), an important place at the meeting of five roads.] with Moesia[Moesia, a district inhabited by Tracians, bounded on the south by the Haemus and Scardus mountains; on the west by the Drinus; on the north by the Danube, and on the east by the Euxine. In the main it comprehends modern Serbia and Bulgaria. It became a Roman province in the latter years of Augustus. In the seventh century Slavs and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdom of Serbia and Bulgaria.] on the east; to the west of this is Norica;[Norica (Noricum), a district south of the Danube, corresponding to part of Styria and Carinthia, Austria, Bavaria, and Salzburg. The country was mountainous and the soil poor; but it is rich in iron, and the famous Noric steel was used for Roman weapons. The inhabitants were warlike, and paid more attention to cattle-breeding than to agriculture. Gold and salt were found in considerable quantities. In 16 CE, having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, they were defeated by the Romans, and from this time Norica was called a province, although not organized as such, but remained a kingdom under the control of the imperial procurator.] to the north, the Danube; while the mountains of Greece are the southern boundary. But what lies to the west of the Danube, that is Hungary, and this was formerly a part of Scythia; and it had two peoples, namely the Gepidae,[Gepidae, one of the principal Gothic tribes. After their first migration they are said to have settled between the Oder and the Vistula, from which they expelled the Burgundiones. In the fifth century they appear under their king Ardaric, joining Attila's hosts, with whom they traversed Gaul, and afterward settled in Dacia on the banks of the Danube. Being regarded as dangerous neighbors to the Eastern Empire, Justinian invoked the aid of the Lombards against them; and in consequence the Gepidae and their kingdom were destroyed.] bordering on the Germans, and the Dacians;[Dacia, a large district of central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpatians; on the south by the Danube; on the west by the Pathissus (Tisa or Theiss), and on the east by the Pyrus (Dneister), thus corresponding in the main to the modern Romania and Transylvania. The inhabitants were of Thracian stock, and the Getae were most akin to them in language and customs. By the Greeks they were called Dacians, by the Romans Daci. The Dacians believed in the immortality of the soul, and regarded death merely as a change of country. They were divided into an aristocracy and a proletariat. The first alone had the right to cover their heads, and wore felt hats. The second comprised the rank and file of the army, the peasants and artisans, and wore their hair long. They practiced agriculture, cattle raising, and also worked the gold and silver mines of Transylvania, at the same time carrying on a considerable outside trade. Although compelled to recognize Roman supremacy, they were by no means subdued. Trajan resolved to conquer them once for all, and after two campaigns he accomplished his purpose, making Dacia a Roman province. In 129, under Hadrian, Dacia was divided into Dacia Superior and Inferior, the former comprising Transylvania, the latter Little Wallachia, with procurators both under the praetorian legate. Marcus Aurelius rearranged it into three parts. In 256 the Goths crossed the Carpathians and drove the Romans from Dacia, and later Aurelian withdrew the troops altogether, settling the Roman colonists on the south of the Danube in Moesia, where he created the province of Dacia Aureliani.] but these are not those now called the Dacians (whom we call the Danes, whose king possesses a broad but maritime kingdom toward the German Sea, between Sweden and Saxony), but those within whose boundaries lies Transylvania,[Transylvania, a former principality, occupying until 1918 the extreme eastern portion of the kingdom of Hungary, but then added to Romania, since when the Romanian name Ardeal has become the official one. Transylvania is in the form of an irregular circle, and is a high plateau, surrounded on all sides by the Transylvanian mountains, the southeastern continuation of the Carpathian system. The Latin name first appears in the twelfth century, signifying "beyond the woods," that is, from Hungary. The German name is derived from the seven principal fortified towns or bergs founded by the German colonists—Siebenburgen. Until 1848 political rights belonged only to the Hungarians and the closely related Szekler and Saxon inhabitants, the Romanian majority having no recognition. These privileged elements formed about 40% of the population, the Hungarians being Roman Catholics, or Unitarians, and the Germans Protestants. A gypsy element has long been important.] near the Wallachians, a region of circular form surrounded by mountains.[ Wallachia, former principality of southern Europe; later united with Moldavia to form Bulgaria.] In this part of Hungary, inhabited by the Gepidae, there is another province called Scepusium, after Gepudium. Hungary is fertile; there is a little river in which submerged iron is turned to copper. It also has a fertile green bearing soil, gold and silver mines, and a good climate. It may be compared with the most fertile regions in which overproduction does not destroy the fertility of the soil. As the Huns multiplied in Scythia, they assembled and appointed captains; and they marched westward, traversing the land of the Bessi[ Bessi, a fierce Thracian people living along Mt. Haemus as far as the Euxine. They were finally subdued by the Romans.] and the white Cumani; and afterward over the lands of the Ruthenians[The Ruthenians are those Ukrainians or Little Russians who were formerly Austrian subjects. The name is a Latinized form of "Russian," the terms "Red Russian," etc. being false derivations. When the early Ruthene states lost their independence, the name "Russia" was monopolized by the Muscovite state which, anxious to deny the Ruthenes a national individuality, gave them the name "Little Russians." But the Ruthenes adopted the name "Ukrainians," that is, inhabitants of the Turko-Tatar frontier in southern Russia. The Ruthenians are thus neither more nor less than Ukrainians.] and into the land of the black Cumani. They came to the river Tisa (Theiss). At first they were driven off by Martin (Martrinus) Longobardus who governed Pannonia, but finally they obtained peaceable possession of Pannonia. In the Year of the Lord four hundred one, while Attila (who according to the Hungarian is called Etzel[Etzel. By his wars Attila made himself supreme in central Europe, but his own special kingdom comprised the present Hungary and Transylvania, his capital being the modern city of Budapest. For nearly twenty years he appears to have ruled practically without a rival from the Caspian to the Rhine. Under the name Etzel he played a great part in Teutonic legend, particularly in the Niebelungenlied.]) and his brother Buda were still alive, they made Attila king, and he chose the city of Sicambria for his royal seat. Through natural vainglory he harassed other people. He appointed his brother Bleda, or Buda, an associate in the government and placed him over the subjugated countries.[The Huns had various chiefs, of whom Rugilas (Ruas) was the foremost. When he died in 433, his nephews Attila and Bleda took over the sovereignty. They soon subordinated all the chieftains of their people, and finally Attila, having disposed of his brother, became sole ruler.] While Attila and his brother Buda thus ruled,