First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Celestine (Celestinus) the pope, a native of Campania, succeeded Boniface in the time of Theodosius the Younger. In his zeal and devotion to divine service he established ordinances to be observed in the singing and reading of the Mass, differing from customs observed before his time. As Gratianus says, he ordained that all the priests should know ecclesiastical laws, ordinances and privileges. Having consecrated a number of priests, deacons and bishops, he died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Salarian Way on April 6th. He sat 8 years, 10 months and 17 days; and the chair then rested 21 days.[Celestine I was pope from 422 to 432. He was active in the extirpation of heretical doctrines, and was the first pope known to have taken a direct interest in Britain and Ireland.]

The Third Ecumenical Council was held at Ephesus under Emperor Theodosius the Younger, Pope Celestine, and Juvenal, bishop of Constantinople. At Ephesus 200 bishops assembled, also the antagonistic heretic Nestorius with his adherents, and, all the Pelagian heretics. They held that Jesus was born of Mary alone and not of God, and that his divinity was given him for his service. Cyril (Cyrillus), bishop of Alexandria, and Pope Celestine earnestly opposed this. And it was decided to call the Blessed Virgin Theotokos (Theotocos), that is, Mother of the Lord. By unanimous judgment the followers of these heresies were condemned by 13 ordinances, and those who had wandered away from the true faith were cursed.[The Council of Ephesus (Third Ecumenical Council of the Church) was held in 431. It condemned the Nestorian doctrine which, as it was said, invalidated the unity of Christ's person by affirming that the divine Logos (Word) dwelt in Jesus as in a temple, and that inasmuch as the Logos could not have been born, it is absurd to call Mary a "Godbearer." Nestor, patriarch of Constantinople, was excommunicated and deposed at Ephesus and later banished to an oasis in Egypt, where he died, probably before 450.]

Year of the World 5623

Year of Christ 424

Sixtus the Third, a pope, and a Roman, whose father was Sixtus, came to office in the time of Emperor Valentinian. When he became pontiff he was hailed into court by one Bassus, charged with certain offenses; but Sixtus brought the matter before a council and was unanimously acquitted in the presence of 57 bishops. His accuser, with the approval of Valentinian and his mother Placidia, was exiled, while his possessions were forfeited, not to the public purse but to the Church. Sixtus built the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary (now Mary Maggiore) and endowed it well. Having given his all to the building of churches or their adornment and to the poor, he died and was buried in a crypt on the Tiburtine Way with the body of the blessed Lawrence (Laurentii), having sat eight years and 19 days; and the chair rested twenty-two days.[Sixtus III was bishop of Rome form 432 to 440. During his pontificate the dispute between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, who had been at variance since the Council of Ephesus, was settled.]

Leo the First, a pope, and a native of Tuscany (Thuscus), whose father was Quintianus, was called Leo the Great because of his worthiness and extraordinary learning. He was held to be the first in merit because no one could equal him in versatility. Accordingly at the Chalcedonian Council, in consequence of great veneration, he was unanimously acclaimed thrice-holy. He made many ordinances for the establishment and extension of the faith, and being a highly learned man, wrote many statutes, orations and sermons. He erected, beautified, renewed, repaired, and established many churches. After having sat 21 years, one month and 13 days he died and was buried with Saint Peter in the Vatican; and the chair rested 8 days.[Leo I, who alone of Roman pontiffs shares with Gregory I the surname of The Great, was pope from 440 to 461. He was a native of Rome, although according to some, a native of Tuscany. When Sixtus III died in 440, Leo succeeded him. In 443 he took stern measures against the Manicheans (who since the capture of Carthage by Genseric in 439 had become very numerous at Rome). In 444 he reported to the Italian bishops that some of the heretics had returned to Catholicism, some had been banished, and others had fled. In seeking out the latter he sought the help of the provincial clergy. In 448 Leo received with commendation a letter from Eutyches, the Constantinopolitan monk, complaining of the revival of the Nestorian heresy there; and in 449 Eutyches asked for Leo's support at the ecumenical council at that time under summons to meet at Ephesus. Leo sent by his legates an epistle to Flavian, setting forth in detail the doctrine ever since recognized as orthodox regarding the union of the two natures in the one person of Jesus Christ. Leo's letter, though submitted, was not read by the assembled fathers, and the papal legates were in danger of their lives from the violence of the theologians who, not content with deposing Flavian and Eusebius, shouted for the dividing of those who divided Christ. When the news of the result of this council reached Rome, Leo wrote to emperor Theodosius to sanction another council, to be held in Italy. Among the reasons urged was the threatening attitude of the Huns. Their invasion took place the following year (452). Aquileia succumbed to Attila, and the conqueror set out for Rome. Leo went forth to meet him, and it is said that his eloquence influenced Attila to turn back. But when Genseric, the Vandal chieftain, arrived under the walls of Rome three years later, the best Leo could secure was a promise that there would be no burning of buildings or murder, and that three of the oldest basilicas would be exempted from plunder. Leo died November 10, 461. He was succeeded by Hilarius.]

Year of the World 5653

Year of Christ 454

Hilarius the pope, a Sardian, ordained that the popes after him should not choose their own successors; this statute to apply to all ecclesiastical offices. He wrote three epistles on the Christian faith, thereby confirming the three Councils held at Nicaea, Ephesus and Chalcedon. He built three chapels, a cloister, and two libraries; and having sympathetically contributed to the beautification of the houses of God, and having given admonitions to encourage learning, for penance, and the giving of alms, and all other matters, as becomes a pious superior, he was buried after a holy life in the crypt of Saint Lawrence (Laurentii) with the body of the blessed Sixtus. He sat seven years, three months and ten days. Then the chair was vacant for ten days.[Hilarius, bishop of Rome from 461 to 468, is known to have acted as the legate of Leo the Great at the "robber" Synod of Ephesus in 449. There he so vigorously opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople that he was thrown into prison, from which he escaped to Rome. He was chosen to succeed Leo in 461. In 465 he held at Rome a council which put a stop to some abuses, particularly that of the bishops in appointing their own successors. His pontificate was marked by the extension of papal authority in France and Spain. He died November 17, 467.]