First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Augustine (Augustinus) was a disciple of Saint Ambrose in the faith, and of all who lived at this time the most learned. He was a bishop at Hippo, in Africa, and a mighty protector and protagonist of our faith. He was born of honorable parents, his father a worthy counselor, and Monica, his mother, a very good Christian matron, zealously devoted to the rearing of her son. In his youth Augustine became very well versed in secular literature, as well as in the liberal arts, which he acquired through his own efforts and understanding without the aid of an instructor. Through pagan error he fell into the Manichean heresy, in which he remained for nine years. By an unmarried woman he had a son, called Adeodatus, a man of subtle intelligence, but who died in his youth. At Carthage Augustine for many years first read the liberal arts and rhetoric. Afterwards, without his mother knowing, he went to Rome to study, and then to Milan to teach rhetoric at the request of Symmachus (Symacho) the governor. Then his mother soon followed him. Not long afterwards he was converted to the correct and true faith pursuant to her prayers and the teachings of Saint Ambrose. At the age of thirty, together with his son, he was baptized on Easter Day by the same Ambrose; and they both wrote the hymn of praise, Te Deum Laudamus. Afterwards, at the suggestion of his mother he went to Rome, traveled through the country of Etruria, and visited the pious hermits at Pisa, and their hundred cells not far from Rome. At Rome he contested with the Manichean heretics, and then returned with his mother from Rome to Africa. When his mother died Augustine and his brothers journeyed to Carthage; and he distributed his inheritance among the poor. He began to live in a monastery in the woods according to rule among the apostles. He was afterwards elected bishop of Hippo against his will. He lived another forty years, and after having written so many books in all branches of learning that they could neither be counted nor read, he died blessed at the age of seventy-five, and his body was buried in St. Stephen's Church. From here it was carried to Sardinia, and finally to Pavia, where it was held in veneration.[Augustine (Augustinus), one of the Four Fathers (or Doctors) of the Church, was born at Tagaste, in Numidia, in 354. His father was a pagan; his mother, Monica, a Christian. Endowed with splendid talents, a vivid imagination and strong passions, he passed his restless youth in dissipation, in desultory study, changing from one faith to another, dissatisfied with himself, and unsettled in mind. His mother wept and prayed for him, and in her anguish sought the bishop of Carthage. After listening to her sorrows he dismissed her with these words: "Go in peace; the son of so many tears will not perish!" Augustine soon afterwards went to Rome, gaining fame and riches by his eloquence at the bar, but still unhappy and restless. From Rome he went to Milan, where he was converted by the preaching of Ambrose and was baptized in the presence of his mother, Monica. On this occasion the hymn, Te Deum, was composed, still in use in the churches. After some time spent in study Augustine was ordained as a priest, and then bishop of Hippo, a small down and territory not far from Carthage. Once installed, he never again left his flock or accepted any higher office. He spent all he possessed in hospitality and charity. In 430, after having presided over the diocese for 35 years, Hippo was besieged by the Vandals. In the midst of the horrors that ensued, Augustine refused to leave his people, and he died during the siege at the age of 75. It is said that his remains were afterward removed from Africa to Pavia, by Luitprand, king of the Lombards. The writings of Augustine in defense of Christianity are numerous and celebrated, and he is regarded as the patron saint of theologians and learned men. Most important are his in 13 books, written in 397, and containing an account of his early life, and thus famed as perhaps the earliest (and greatest?) autobiography in the western tradition, and ('The City of God') in 22 books, commenced about 413, and not finished before 426. The first ten books are a refutation of the various systems of what he viewed as the false religion of paganism; the last twelve, a systematic view of what Augustine considered the true religion, Catholicism.]

Monica, mother of Saint Augustine, died in blessedness on the 7th day of May at the age of 56 years. She was a virtuous, kind, discreet, and patient woman, devoted to prayer and contemplation, and zealous in watching, fasting and giving alms. For about 1020 years her saintly corpse remained in the country where Augustine was buried, until the time of Pope Martin the Fifth. During Martin's time, about the Year of the Lord 1429, her remains were brought to Rome with great solemnity, and given a rich and costly funeral, attended with many eulogies.

Monica was born in the year 332, in Africa, of a Christian family, and was education by a relative, perhaps an aunt, with strictness. This lady forbade her to drink water except at mealtimes, admonishing the young girl that "If you get into the habit of drinking water now, when you are married and have the keys to the cellar, you will then sneak some wine." And this happened, for when she was sent by her father with the pitcher to the cellar to draw wine for the table, she got into the habit of sipping from the pitcher before she brought it up to the dining hall. As the habit grew she drank more. A slave whom she reprimanded cast her clandestine drinking into her teeth and this brought Monica to her senses. Soon after she was baptized, and from baptism lived an edifying life.

Monica married a young pagan gentleman named Patricius, by whom she had two sons, Augustine and Navigius, both of whom preferred the paganism of their father to the Christianity of their mother. But Patricius in his older years was instructed in the true faith and allowed himself to be baptized. Monica was accustomed daily to assist at mass. Patricius died in 371 when Augustine was seventeen and studying at Carthage. To the grief of his widowed mother Augustine became involved in certain non-Christian beliefs and philosophical schools of thought, and he sank into a life of dissolute morals. At twenty-nine he went to Rome to teach rhetoric. There he fell dangerously ill, and he attributed his recovery to his mother's prayers. In 384 he went to Milan, where he fell in with Ambrose who quickly dispersed his heretical errors. In the meantime his mother came to Milan, seeking him; and there she found in Ambrose a teacher to refresh her weary soul. She was growing old, but at last, what she had longed for was accomplished – she beheld the baptism of her son Augustine at Easter in the year 387.

Monica now felt the call of home, and she persuaded Augustine and his brother Navigius to return to Ostia with her; and it was there where occurred the memorable evening conversation that Augustine has described to us in his Confessions. At Ostia, Monica fell ill and died at the age of fifty-six in the year 387.

Rufinus (Ruffinus), an Aquileian priest and a highly renowned and informed man, flourished at this time. From Jerome (Hieronymus) he received many letters of friendly praise. He was very industrious in making translations from the Greek tongue into the Latin.[Rufinus (Ruffinus), celebrated ecclesiastical writer, was born in Italy about 345. At first a member of the monastery at Aquileia, he later resided for many years at a monastery in Palestine where he became intimate with Jerome. But they quarreled, Jerome attacking Rufinus on account of his support of the tenets of Origen. After a stay of twenty-six years in the East, Rufinus returned to Italy, where he published a Latin translation of the by Pamphilus, and two books of Origen. In the preface of one of these he quoted a panegyric that Jerome had at an earlier date pronounced against Origen. This led to a bitter correspondence between Rufinus and Jerome, which was crowned by the Apologia of the one, adversus Hieronymum ('Against Jerome') and the Apologia of the other, adversus Rufinum ('Against Rufinus'). When Alaric invaded Italy, Rufinus fled to Sicily, where he died in the year 410.]

Lucian (Lucianus), a priest at Jerusalem, an excellent man in piety and art, through divine revelation at this time found the remains of Saint Stephen, the first martyr, and of Gamaliel, teacher of Paul; and being a man of learning, he wrote to all the churches, proclaiming this revelation and discovery in the Greek tongue. These letters Habundius, the Spaniard, later translated into Latin.

Alexander, a physician of this period, nicknamed the Wise, who by reason of his great intelligence was regarded as the prince of physicians, wrote three books, comprehending the entire field of medicine.

At this time crept forth the heresy of the predestined, who affirmed that nothing more was necessary for (eternal) life than that all men live virtuously.

Nestor, bishop of Constantinople, a heretic, held and preached that although Christ was a pure man, he was not God; and he cited 72 articles of the Holy Scriptures in support of his erroneous interpretation.[Nestor (Nestorius) was appointed patriarch of Constantinople in 428, but in consequence of his heresies was deposed by the Council of Ephesus in 431. His great opponent was Cyril. Nestori was subsequently banished to one of the oases in Egypt, and he died in exile probably before 450. He carefully distinguished between the divine and human nature attributed to Christ, and refused to give to the Virgin Mary the title of Theotokos, or "Mother of God." The opinions of Nestor are still maintained by Nestorian Christians.]

Proba, a very beautiful woman, wife of Adelphus the Roman proconsul, with much industry so beautifully and neatly assembled all the history found in the poems of Virgil the poet, as well as in the Old and New Testament up to the time of descent of the Holy Spirit, that he who is not well informed upon this composition, might believe that Virgil was an evangelist.

Euphrosina (Eufrosina), who was taught the Scriptures by her father, entered a monastery in male attire, and she called herself Smaragdus. To her end she remained there in strict abstinence in the garb of a monk.

Marina, a virgin, did likewise, entering a monastery in male attire, and calling herself Marinus. When she was accused of deflowering a virgin, she scornfully and patiently remained before the gates of the monastery until the end of her life.


Augustine, one of the four Fathers or Doctors of the Church, is portrayed by a large woodcut. He is clad in his Episcopal vestments, for he was bishop of Hippo for many years. Before him is a reading desk, with open books, upon which his left hand rests, while his right is raised in benediction. On the wall behind him hangs a piece of tapestry or embroidery. The child kneeling at his right in the attitude of prayer is symbolic of the story told by Augustine himself: While writing his Discourse on the Trinity, and wandering along the seashore lost in meditation, he saw a child, who having dug a hole in the sand, appeared to be bringing water from the sea to fill it. Augustine asked the purpose of the task and the child replied that he intended to empty into this cavity all the water of the great deep. 'Impossible!' exclaimed Augustine. 'Not more impossible,' replied the child, 'than for you, Augustine, to explain the mystery on which you are now meditating.' Both Augustine and child are in possession of a halo.


Euphrosina (Eufrosina), is represented with heavy braids coiled about her head. She holds in her hands an open book, probably to symbolize her devotion to learning (an unusual depiction of a woman at this time).