First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The Second Ecumenical Council, held at Constantinople, was attended by one hundred fifty fathers, and was held at the time of the Emperors Gratian (Graciani) and Theodosius, and of Pope Damasus, Cyril, the bishop of Jerusalem, and Nectarius, the patriarch of Alexandria. It was called to proceed against Macedonius the bishop of Constantinople, and against Eudoxius because they had denied that the Holy Spirit was God. And all these fathers, having condemned this heresy, established four rules; for this Macedonius had occupied and embarrassed the patriarchal chair by theft and tyranny. After his deposition the fathers elected Nectarius. And they declared that the Holy Spirit is God, and life-giving, and co-eval with the Father and Son. And they cursed Apollinarius and Sabellius, the blasphemers of God, who also held that the body of Christ is spiritless and without a rational soul and without human understanding, and that the divinity passed away with the death of Christ in three days. The Emperor Theodosius was opposed to the assembled fathers, and by flattery he influenced them unwittingly to elevate the episcopal chair at Constantinople to a patriarchal one without the knowledge of the pope. And this was the cause of the schism that followed.[The Second Ecumenical Council was held at Constantinople in 381. In reality it was only a synod of bishops from Thrace, Asia and Syria, convened by Theodosius to unite the church in the orthodox faith. No Western bishop was present, nor any Roman legate. A few bishops came from Egypt, but tardily. In spite of its sectional character, the council came in time to be regarded as ecumenical in both East and West. It affirmed the Nicene faith and denounced opposing doctrines.]

Didymus (Dydimus) of Alexandria suffered with impairment of sight from his youth and therefore lacked a knowledge of the alphabet. Nevertheless, in his old age he acquired a knowledge of geometry and dialectics, subjects requiring much experience in letters. He also studied the Holy Scriptures and wrote much against the Arian heretics. His industry and labors were such as no other person could have carried on without the sense of sight; but Didymus relied on his sense of hearing.[]

Radagaisus (Radagasus), king of the Goths and among ancient and contemporary enemies the most cruel, ravaged Italy in the time of Emperor Honorius. With his violent horde of over two hundred thousand Goths he overran the countryside with fire and sword. He not only had a countless number of undisciplined men under him, but he himself was a rough Scythian pagan, who loved to spill the blood of all mankind as a libation to his god. Great terror and fear seized Rome, the pagans assembling and attributing their suffering to their neglect of the sacrifices due to their gods. And there arose in the city a great cursing and condemnation of Christ, but by God's intervention Radagaisus was driven to flight and captured by the Romans. Before long he was deprived of his life. It is said the Gothic prisoners were so numerous that they were sold like base animals.[Radagaisus, a Scythian, invaded Italy with a formidable host of barbarians in the reign of Honorius, but was defeated by Stilicho near Florence in 408. He was put to death although he had capitulated on condition that his life be spared.]

Alaric was successor to Radagaisus. He was protected by Stilicho, who might well have defeated him; and he came to Italy. Pursuant to counsel, Honorius gave him Gaul. When Alaric arrived there, Stilicho, contrary to the common good, ordered Saulus the pagan to attack the Goths. At Easter while the Goths were engaged in their festivities, Saulus attacked and slew a great number; but the Goths made a counterattack and won. Enraged, they left Gaul and marched on Rome ravaging everything on the way with fire and sword. They took Rome and plundered and burned it in the year of the founding of the same (city) one thousand sixty-four.[The year 412 CE.] But Alaric was kind and circumspect, ordering his men to avoid bloodshed as far as possible and to spare those who fled to the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Finally Alaric died suddenly.[Alaric was elected king of the Visigoths in 398. He twice invaded Italy: in 402-3, when he was defeated by Stilicho, and again in 408-410, when he took and plundered Rome. Soon afterwards he died at Consentia, in Bruttium, while preparing to invade Italy.]

Ataulf (Athaulphum), relative of Alaric, was, on the score of relationship and race, made king of the Goths. And they proceeded to Rome, and what still remained they destroyed like locusts. They led away Gallia (Gallam) Placidia (Placidam), daughter of the elder Theodosius and sister of Honorius; and Ataulf himself married her. This later proved a common good, for although Ataulf had decided to destroy Rome and to build a new city there, and to call it Gothia not after the Roman emperors but after himself and his people, Placidia influenced him to abandon his cruel resolve. She made peace between him and Honorius and Theodosius the Younger. Then Ataulf went to Gaul, where he was slain through the treachery of his own people.[Ataulf (Athaulphus) succeeded his brother-in-law, Alaric, as king of the Goths. After ravaging Italy for two years he made peace with Emperor Honorius, married the latter's sister Placidia, and led the Visigoths into Gaul in 412. From there he passed into Spain, which had been overrun by the Alans, Sueves, and Vandals. Under Adophus the Visigoths drove the Sueves into northwestern Spain, the Alans into the southwest, and the Vandals into the south; and thus Ataulf founded the kingdom of the Visigoths in Spain and southern Gaul, eventually embracing the entire Spanish peninsula and lasting three centuries.]