First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Gratian (Gracianus[Gratian's name is spelled 'Racianus' in the Beloit College copy of the since space was left for the initial letter 'G' to be painted in later.]), eldest son of Valentinian, held the sovereignty for six years after the death of Valens, although he had reigned a long time previously with Valens, his uncle, and Valentinian, the latter's brother. From youth he was stern in military affairs, and also a good Christian. Then, when a countless horde of the enemy overran the country of the Romans, he armed himself, and although but a youth, yet having faith in Christ, he raised a small army unequal to that of the enemy; and at Strasbourg he fought a fierce battle with incredible good fortune. Although the Roman losses were few, 30,000 Alamanni were routed. Thus Gratian was rewarded for his true love of the faith. When Ambrose (Ambrosius) was elected bishop all Italy returned to the true faith. He ordered all the ruined churches restored. Now when Gratian saw Thrace and Dacia in the hands of the Goths, and the Roman welfare in danger, he recalled from Spain Theodosius, then 33 years of age, and at Sirmium, with the unanimous consent of all, appointed him ruler of the East and of Thrace. This man, placing every faith in Christ's help, attacked the cruel and mighty Scythians, Alamanni, Huns, and Goths, and defeated them in many great battles. In the meantime Maximus ravished Britain, and then marched into Gaul; and at Lyons he slew Gratian, who was then 29 years of age. Nevertheless, Gratian was a learned and eloquent man, moderate in his meals and hours of sleep, and a victor over licentiousness.[Boniface I occupied the pontificate from 418 to 422. When his predecessor died, the clergy were divided, one faction electing Eulalius, the other Boniface. In the interest of public order the imperial government commanded the competitors to leave the town, the decision being reserved to a council. Eulalius having broken his ban, Honorius decided to recognize Boniface, and the council was countermanded.]

Theodosius the Elder, a Spaniard, whose father was Theodosius and mother Termancia, after the death of Gratian (Graciano), was sole ruler of the Roman Empire for eleven years. At Aquileia he slew the tyrant Maximus, the murderer of Gratian. This was prophesied to that same tyrant by St. Martin. By divine assistance Theodosius suppressed many tyrants; for he was an augmenter and protector of the general welfare. Morally and physically he resembled Trajan. In addition to his military training he was very intelligent, and was devoted to a Christian life. Once upon a time when he wanted to attend church at Milan, a thing forbidden him because he had not done penance for a certain offense, and was refused admittance, he took this in good part, thanked Ambrose the bishop, and did penance. He married Flacilla, by whom he begot Arcadius and Honorius. He died at Milan in the fiftieth year of his life, leaving the sovereignty to his sons in peace. His body was taken to Constantinople and buried there.[ Theodosius I, surnamed the Great, Roman emperor of the East (378-395 CE), was the son of the general Theodosius, who restored Britain to the empire and was beheaded at Carthage in the reign of Valens in 376. The future emperor was born in Spain in 346. He received a good education, and learned the art of war under his father, whom he accompanied in his British campaigns. After Valens fell in battle against the Goths, he was proclaimed emperor of the East by Gratian, who felt himself unable to sustain the burden of the empire. The Roman Empire in the East was then in a critical position; for the Romans were disheartened by the bloody defeat which they had sustained; and the Goths were insolent in their victory. Theodosius, however, gained two signal victories over them, and concluded a peace in 382. In 383 Maximus assumed the imperial purple in Britain, and invaded Gaul with a powerful army. In the war which followed Gratian was slain, and Theodosius, who did not consider it prudent to enter into a contest with Maximus, acknowledged him emperor of Spain, Gaul, and Britain, but he secured for Valentinian, the brother of Gratian, Italy, Africa, and western Illyricum. When Maximus expelled Valentinian from Italy, Theodosius espoused the latter's cause, and marched into the West at the head of a powerful army. After defeating Maximus in Pannonia, Theodosius pursued him across the Alps into Aquileia. Here Maximus was surrendered by his soldiers to Theodosius, and was put to death. In 389, Theodosius entered Rome in triumph, accompanied by Valentinian and his own son Honorius. In 390, while the emperor was at Milan, a serious riot broke out at Thessalonica, in which the imperial officer and several of his troops were murdered. To avenge this offense, Theodosius sent an army of barbarians to Thessalonica; the people were invited to the games of the Circus; and as soon as the place was filled, the soldiers received the signal for a massacre. This lasted for three hours, and over 7,000 paid the penalty of the insurrection. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, revealed to Theodosius his crime in a letter, and told him that penitence alone could efface his guilt. When Theodosius was about to perform his devotions in the great church of Milan, the archbishop stopped him at the door, demanding an acknowledgment of his guilt. The conscience-stricken emperor humbled himself before the church, which has recorded his penance as one of its greatest victories. He laid aside the insignia of imperial power, and in the posture of a suppliant entreated pardon for his sin before the entire congregation. After eight months he was restored to communion with the church. Theodosius spent 3 years in Italy, establishing Valentinian II on the throne in the West, and returning to Constantinople in 391, and there he died in 395. His two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, had already been elevated to the rank of Augusti, and the empire was now divided between them, Arcadius taking the East, Honorius the West. Theodosius was a firm Catholic, and a fierce persecutor of the Arians and all heretics. It was in his reign that the formal destruction of paganism took place, with pagan worship being prohibited under severe penalties.]

Arcadius (Archadius), son of Theodosius the Great, ruling in the East, and Honorius, his brother, in the West, held the sovereignty in common. Arcadius lived eleven years after his father's death.[ Arcadius (378-408), Roman emperor, the elder son of Theodosius the Great, was created Augustus in 383, and succeeded his father in 395. The empire was divided between him and his brother Honorius, Honorius governing the two western prefectures (Gaul and Italy), and Arcadius the two eastern (the Orient and Illyricum). There was estrangement between the two governments throughout the reign of Arcadius. Honorius's general Stilicho was always on the watch to annex Illyricum. Arcadius was guided at first by the praetorian prefect Rufinus, and after his assassination, probably instigated by Stilicho, at the end of 395, by the eunuch Eutropius (executed at the end of 399). His wife, Eudoxia (daughter of a Frank general, Bauto), had great influence over him. She died in 404. In the last years of his reign, Anthemius (praetorian prefect) was his minister. In 395-400 the Gothic general Gainas, with the aid of partisans in Constantinople, tried to set up a German domination. But he fell after having held the city for six months. The banishment in 404 of John Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople, who had offended the empress and quarreled with the bishop of Alexandria, was important in determining the supremacy of the emperor to the patriarch.] They were still young when their father died; so he provided three mighty men as guardians, namely, Rufinus (Ruffinum) to rule the East; Stilicho (Stilconem), the West; and Gildo (Gildonem), Africa. But they were so ambitious to rule that they determined to ignore these youths and to reign for themselves; however, because of his cruelty, Gildo was driven out by his brother Masceleger, and died of poison or of despondency. However, as Masceleger, after his victory, spared neither God nor man, his soldiers killed him. Rufinus was subjugated by Arcadius. Stilicho worked much harm to the common good; and when he was finally defeated by the Goths, and asked for help, the emperor ungratefully sent a number of officers, who killed Stilicho.[Rufinus, chief minister of state,under Theodosius the Great, was a dangerous and treacherous man. After the death of Theodosius in 395, he exercised paramount influence over the weak Arcadius; but toward the end of the year a conspiracy was formed against him by Eutropius and Stilicho, who induced Gainas, the Gothic ally of Arcadius, to join in the plot. In consequence Rufinus was slain by the troops of Gainas. Stilicho, son of a vandal captain under Valens, became a distinguished general under Theodosius I, and on the death of the latter in 375, the real ruler of the West under Honorius. His power increased when Rufinus died, as well as by the marriage of his daughter to Honorius. His military ability saved the Western Empire. In 403 he deafeated Alaric, compelling him to retire from Italy. In 405 he gained a great victory over Radagaisus, who had invaded Italy with another horde of barbarians. These victories caused him to aspire to the mastery of the Roman empire; but he was apprehended and put to death at Ravenna in 408. Gildo, a Moorish chieftain, governed Africa for some years as a subject of the Western Empire. In 397 he transferred his allegiance to the Eastern Empire, Arcadius accepting him as a subject. Stilicho, guardian of Honorius, sent an army against him. Gildo was defeated, and being taken prisoner, hanged himself. Arcadius, emperor of the East (395-408), eldest son of Theodosius I, was born in Spain in 383. On the death of Theodosius he became emperor of the East, while the West was given to his younger brother Honorius. Arcadius possessed neither physical nor mental vigor, and was entirely governed by unworthy favorites. At first he was ruled by Rufinus, the prefect of the East, and on the murder of the latter soon after the accession of Arcadius, the government fell into the hands of the eunuch, Eutropius. The latter was put to death in 399, and his power now devolved upon Gainas, the Goth; but upon his revolt and death in 401, Arcadius became entirely dependant upon his wife Eudoxia. Arcadius died in 408 leaving the empire to his son Theodosius II.]

Honorius was the brother of the aforesaid Arcadius. In moral and Christian life he resembled his father Theodosius. When, after accepting the sovereignty, he saw the strength of the commonwealth declining daily, he sent Constantius, a strong and warlike man, with an army into Gaul; and afterwards he married him to his sister Galla Placidia, to the joy of all. By her Constantius begat Valentinian, his son, who afterwards carried on the government. And therefore he took him to Ravenna to rule the empire jointly with him. However, before the expiration of seven months he passed away. In the meantime Placidia was driven out by her brother, and with her sons, Honorius and Valentinian, she went to the East. There she was honorably received by Theodosius. After Honorius had reigned fifteen years with the younger Theodosius, his brother's son, he died at Rome and was buried in a mausoleum next to the atrium of the blessed apostle Peter, leaving no living issue of his body.[Honorius, Roman emperor of the West (395-423 CE) was the second son of Theodosius the Great, and succeeded to the sovereignty of the West upon his father's death. During his minority the government was in the hands of Stilicho, whose daughter Honorius married. Stilicho for a time defended Italy against Alaric and Radagaisus. However, after Honorius put Stilicho to death on a charge of treason, Alaric invaded Italy, and took and plundered Rome in 410. Honorius then lived an inglorious life at Ravenna, where he died in 423.]