First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

At this time real wool, mixed with the clouds, fell in rain in the land of the Atrebates (Atrabatas).[The Atrebates were a people in Gallia Belgica, in the modern Artois, which is a corruption of their name. In Caesar's time (57 CE) they numbered 15,000 warriors; their capital was Nemetocenna. Part of them crossed over to Britain, where they dwelt in the upper valley of the Thames, Oxfordshire and Berkshire.] Marvelously large hailstones fell at Constantinople, killing a number of persons; and an earthquake occurred throughout the earth. In these turbulent times Athanaricus, king of the Goths, cruelly persecuted the Christians among his people, and elevated them to martyrdom.[Athanaricus was a king of the Visigoths during their stay in Dacia. In 367-369 CE he carried on war with the emperor Valens, with whom he finally concluded a peace. In 374 Athanaric was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending himself for some time in a stronghold in the mountains of Dacia, was compelled to fly in 380, and take refuge in the Roman territory. He died in 381.] Over 80,000 armed Burgundians settled down on the banks of the Rhine, and before long they accepted the Christian faith. At this time, while Valens reigned, the Huns lay concealed in the inaccessible mountain fastnesses for a long while. They came forth against the Goths with such swift vengeance and ferocity that they drove them out of the country. Fleeing over the Danube, the Goths were taken in by the emperor Valens without entering into a treaty or alliance. Afterwards they were subjected to such unendurable poverty by Maximus that starvation drove them to take up arms. They fought against the army of Valens, and invaded all of Thrace, ravaging everywhere with fire and death. Now, when the Goths asked him to send them a bishop to instruct them in the faith, he sent a teacher of the Arian heresy; and so this entire people became Arian. After the emperor was slain the Goths appeared before Constantinople; but Dominica, the august wife of Valens, gave them a large sum of money and thus ransomed the city, and preserved the loyalty of her subjects to the empire.

It is agreed that the people who are called Progethic(?) Gothic had their origin from the Scythians, and that the Scythians first were in Europe in the north and at the border of the Tanais.['Tanais' is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Strabo ( 11.1) regarded it as the boundary between Europe and Asia.] They were a savage people who were very ready to die. Above them were the Ostrogoths, and below them the Visigoths. The first dwelling in that region of the west, the latter in that region of the east in which they lived, having the names they are called in their country. The Huns themselves are also Scythians. But the Goths are far more savage since they, dwelling nearer to the Riphean Mountains[The 'Riphean Mountains' is the ancient name for the Ural Mountains in Russia which, like the Tanais River, were regarded as the boundary between Europe and Asia.], are exposed to the harsh and cold environment of the north.[This paragraph is not in the German edition of the . The translation offered here is, at points, highly speculative. Suggestions/corrections for improving it are eagerly sought.]

Basil (Basilius) the Great, bishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia, was illustrious for his great virtue and wisdom in these times. He was the father of many monks. Among the stories of his virtue and piety is one relating to a youth, who, for the love of a maiden, surrendered himself to the Devil; but Basil reconciled him to God, and commanded the Devil to return the document of surrender. Being a very celebrated teacher, Basil wrote excellent books against the heretic Eunomius; also a book concerning the Holy Spirit, and other short works. In Greece he founded the order of the isolated or monastic people. This holy father died on the first day of the month of January in the sixth year of the reign of Valentinian, and was illustrious for his numerous miracles.[Basil (Basilius) the Great, was born in 329 CE at Caesarea. He studied at Antioch or Constantinople under Linanius, subsequently continuing his studies at Athens, chiefly under the sophists Himerius and Proaeresius. Among his fellow students were the emperor Julian and Gregory of Nazianzus, the latter becoming his intimate friend. After acquiring the greatest reputation as a student for his knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy and science, he returned to Caesarea where he pleaded causes. However, he soon abandoned his profession, devoting himself to a religious life. For many years his life was that of an ascetic. He was elected bishop of Caesarea in 370 in the place of Eusebius. He died in 379.]

Gregory (Gregorius) Nazianzus (Nazianzenzus), the bishop, who conducted Basil to a monastery, was a teacher of Jerome in the Holy Scriptures, and was held in great esteem at this time for his piety, knowledge of letters, and eloquence. He wrote many things, particularly in praise of Cyprian (Cipriani), Athanasius, and Maximus the Wise. He wrote two books against Eunomius, and one against the Emperor Julian. He also wrote of the obligations of marriage, and eulogized virginity in poetry. For legitimate reasons he relieved the people of Constantinople of heresy. When very old he elected a successor, and from that point on lived a secluded life in the country. Gregory died in the time of Theodosius, Basil and Gratian.[Gregory (Gregorius), surnamed Nazianzen, was born in a village near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, about 329 CE. His father took the greatest pains with his education, and he afterward pursued his studies at Athens, where he earned the greatest reputation for his knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy, and mathematics. Among his fellow students were Julian, future emperor, and Basil, with whom he formed a most intimate friendship. He returned home from Athens after a sojourn of six years. Having received ordination, he continued to reside at Nazianzus, where he discharged his duties as a presbyter, and assisted his aged father, bishop of the town. After the latter's death he refused to continue as bishop, being averse to a public life, and fond of solitary meditation. After living some years in retirement, he was summoned to Constantinople to defend the orthodox faith against the Arians and other heretics. In 380 he was made bishop of Constantinople by the emperor Theodosius, but resigned the office in the following year, and withdrew altogether from public life. He lived in solitude at his paternal estate, and died there in 389 or 390. He wrote orations, sermons, letters and poems.] Epiphanius, a bishop of Salamis, in Cyprus, attacked all heretics with exceptional courage, and in his great age wrote various books. He died like a saint on the fourth day of the Ides of May.

At this time there lived in Syria two holy men of great faith, named the Macharii. They were disciples of St. Anthony. One lived in the upper desert, the other in the lower. Hilarion, a most pious abbot, lived in the island of Cyprus, not far from the city of Salamis. After he saw Anthony, he led a severe life and died on the 12th day of the Kalends of November. Arsenius, born of a Roman senator, became a hermit in response to a voice that spoke to him, saying, Arsenius, if you would be saved, flee mankind and be silent. From that point on he persevered in a holy life and performed miracles in the service of Christ. He died at the age of ninety-five, concluding a blessed life.[Arsenius (c. 354-450), an anchorite, is said to have been born of a noble Roman family. He was appointed by Theodosius the Great, tutor of the young princes Arcadius and Honorius; but at the age of forty he retired to Egypt, where for forty years he lived in monastic seclusion at Scetis in the Thebais, under the spiritual guidance of John the Dwarf. He died at the age of ninety-five, near Memphis. His biography by Simeon Metaphrastes is largely fiction.] Paphuntius, the abbot, converted Thais, a very shameless prostitute, to Christ at Thebes. And after he had written the life of St. Onuffrius, he was taken to heaven by the angels in the presence of the hermits. Agathon, the abbot, also lived at this time. For three years he carried a stone in his mouth in order to acquire the virtue of silence.

Mary (Maria) of Egypt, first known as a prostitute, became an example of piety, penitence and perseverance. She lived in the desert for forty-seven years, concluding a severe penance. She carried with her over the Jordan only two loaves of bread that soon became as hard as rock. By these she sustained herself for several years. On the 9th day of April she ascended to the Lord. Her body was buried by Zozimas, a very holy abbot.

Mary of Egypt, according to tradition, ran away from home to the pleasure-loving city of Alexandria, where she spent seventeen years of her life in prostitution. One day she joined a party on the way to Jerusalem by sea, to keep the solemn festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross to (first instituted by Constantine in 325), but with no religious purpose in her heart, only with a wicked desire to introduce disorder and vice among the pilgrims; and in her evil she went with the crowd on the feast day to the Church, but a mysterious power held her back. Filled with shame and fear, she fell upon the pavement and wept. Becoming penitent at the sight of an image of the Virgin Mother, she crept to the door, the angelic barrier was withdrawn, and the penitent entered. Then a voice came to her as from a mighty distance, "Pass over Jordan, and you will find rest." She hastened to put this command into execution, bathed her face and hands in the sacred water, and on the next day crossed the river, taking with her a few loaves, and praying the Virgin to be her guide. She spent 47 years in the wilderness, seeing no man, and living on herbs and wild dates. Her clothes wore out, and she suffered from alternate heat and cold, and often from hunger. She was discovered by Zozimus, a holy anchorite in Palestine, who gave her his mantle. And when they parted, the penitent made Zozimus promise to return next Lent and bring with him the most precious Body and Blood of our Lord, and to wait for her on the banks of the Jordan nearest to the desert in which she dwelt.

Next year, in Lent, when the brethren dispersed, Zozimus was detained at his monastery by sickness, but by the end of Lent he recovered and made his way to Jordan. Night drew on, and the holy woman did not come. But as the moon rose, he saw her on the other bank. She crossed the stream and received the sacred mysteries that Zozimus had brought with him. And again they parted.

Next Lent Zozimus again traversed the solitude; but when he came to the banks he found Mary lying there, wrapped in the shreds of his old mantle, quite dead. Stooping down, he saw traced on the sands these words, "Abbot Zozimus, bury here the body of the sinner Mary." But he had no spade. A lion came out of the desert, and with his feet dug a hole; and there the old man laid the penitent to await the resurrection of the just.