First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The second schism of the Arians occurred between Liberius and Felix, the popes; for when the Council of Milan was held, all those who adhered to Athanasius were sent into exile; and therefore Liberius was away from the city of Rome for three years, and they elected Felix in his place. He was afterwards driven out by Constantius, and Liberius was reinstated. Out of this arose a violent persecution in which the priests and clerics in the churches were slain everywhere.

Year of the World 5553

Year of Christ 354

Felix the Second, a pope, and a Roman, was elected pope by the heretics after Liberius was driven out, or by the Christians in the place of Liberius; although Jerome states that this was done by the heretics. Now when he came into the pontificate he pronounced Constantius a heretic, and not properly baptized. And a great schism arose between Felix and Liberius, as just mentioned, but Felix could in no manner be diverted from the correct faith. He was taken prisoner by his adversaries, and was slain with many of his adherents. And he was buried in a church that he himself had built on the Aurelian Way at the second mile-stone from the city (i.e., Rome) on the 20th day of November. And he had sat only one year, four months and two days because of the uproar instigated by Liberius.[Felix II, antipope, was in 356 raised from the archdeaconate of Rome to the papal chair, when Liberius was banished by the emperor Constantius for refusing to condemn Athanasius. In 357 Constantius agreed to release Liberius if he would sign that semi-Arian creed. Constantius also issued an edict that the two bishops should rule conjointly, but Liberius was received with such enthusiasm that Felix was obliged to retire. He retired to Porto, where he died in 365.]

Year of the World 5563

Year of Christ 364

Damasus the pope, a Spaniard, whose father was Antony, followed Liberius in the time of Julian, the emperor. He was a good man and the very best guide. He ordained that no one should be condemned in court before a hearing had taken place. He commanded also, under pain of excommunication, that no one through reckless greed should attempt to exercise any powers granted by the Roman see. After the promulgation of these laws and the establishment of peace in the churches, Damasus took pleasure in his literary free time to write the lives of all the popes who had preceded him. He also increased the houses of worship and the divine services, and described the pious bodies buried in them for commemoration by posterity. He likewise ordered that the psalms should be sung interchangeably in the churches, and at the end of each psalm, the Gloria Patri, etc. He was the first to give credence to the writings of Jerome, for up to that time the writings of the Seventy alone were held in esteem. Finally, when he had created many priests and 62 bishops, he died and was buried on the Ardeantine Way with his sister and mother in the church that he himself had founded, on the 11th day of December, after having sat for 19 years, 3 months and 11 days. At that time the chair was vacant for 21 days.

Damasus was pope from 366-384 CE. As a deacon he protested against the banishment of Pope Liberius (355); but when the emperor Constantius sent to Rome the anti-pope Felix II, Damasus with the other clergy rallied to his cause. When Liberius returned from exile and Felix was expelled, Damasus again supported Liberius. On the death of Liberius (366), he was nominated successor; but the irreconcilables of the party of Liberius set up against him another deacon, Ursinus. A serious conflict ensued which quickly led to rioting. The prefect of Rome recognized the claims of Damasus, and Ursinus and his supporters were expelled. The new pope also secured the sympathy of the people by his zeal in discovering the tombs of martyrs, and in adorning them with precious marbles and monumental inscriptions. The inscriptions he composed himself, in medieval verse, full of Virgilian reminiscences. In Rome he erected or embellished the church that still bears his name (S. Lorenzo in Damaso).

The West was gradually recovering from the effects of the Arian crisis, and Damasus endeavored to eliminate from Italy and Illyria the last champion of the Council of Rimini. The bishops of the East, however, under the direction of Basil, were involved in a struggle with the emperor Valens, whose policy was favorable to the council of Rimini. Damasus, to whom they appealed for help, was unable to be of much service because that Episcopal group, viewed askance by Athanasius and his successor Peter, was incessantly combated at the papal court by the hatred of Alexandria. The Eastern bishops triumphed in the end under Theodosius, at the council of Constantinople in 381, in which the Western church took no part. They were invited to a council at Rome in 382, but only a few attended. This council had brought to Rome the learned monk Jerome, for whom Damasus showed great esteem, entrusting to him the revision of the Latin text of the Bible. Damasus died December 11, 384.

The third schism was between Damasus and Ursinus (Ursicinum), in consequence of which there was a resort to force and arms. But before long Damasus was confirmed by the common consent of the priests and the people; while Ursinus was relegated to the Neapolitan church. Damasus also, once upon a time, was accused of adultery. But upon his acquittal before a public council, he was absolved of guilt, and his false accusers condemned and cast out of the church; and it was decreed that whosoever should falsely accuse anyone should themselves suffer the pains and penalties provided for the crime.

Year of the World 5583

Year of Christ 384

Siricius the pope, a Roman, whose father was Tyburtius (Tyburcio), lived in the time of Valentinian. He ordained that the monk whose life was such as to be worthy of consecration from the beginning might attain the honor of bishop. He also ordained that the consecrations should be given from time to time. He forbade the Manichean heretics at Rome to hold communion with the faithful. However, those who desired to return and did penance were to be again accepted if they wished to come back to the cloister to improve their days with fasting and prayer. He ordered that a priest should be ordained only by a bishop, and that he who took on a widow or other housewife should be deprived of his office; also that heretics were to be taken back by laying on of the hand. As the affairs of the church were now brought to a state of peace, and this Siricius had consecrated twenty-six priests, sixteen deacons, and thirty-two bishops, he died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Salarian Way on the 22nd day of March, and was buried. He sat (in office) 15 years 11 months and 25 days. At that time the chair was vacant for 20 days.[Siricius, pope from 384 to 399, succeeded Damasus. The disfavor that he showed to the monks led to the departure of Jerome from Rome to Bethlehem. Several of the decretal letters of Siricius are extant, setting forth the rules of ecclesiastical discipline. During his pontificate the last attempt to revive paganism in Rome was made by Nicomachus Flavianus. Siricius died November 26, 399.]