First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 5513

Year of Christ 314

Silvester the pope, a Roman, whose father was Rufinus (Ruffino), succeeded Melchiades (Melciadem) in the time of Constantine in the one thousand ninety-first year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome). He was a pious man of angelic countenance, fine physique, clear address, holy works, good counsel, Christian faith, and patient hope, and was immersed in every affection. God endowed him with such grace that not only the Christians were remarkably loyal to him, but the pagans as well. Now when Constantine had been baptized and peace restored to the Church, Silvester initiated many laws pertaining to the divine service: Firstly, that the Chrism should be blessed only by a bishop; that a baptized person should be identified by a bishop; and that a priest should anoint a baptized person with the Chrism in the emergency of death. No layman should bail a consecrated person to court, and no consecrated person should discuss matters or transact business before a temporal judge. A priest holding mass should use white linen, since the body of Christ was buried in it. This most holy pope, among others of his miracles, relieved Rome of the plague of a dragon. He died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Sallarian Way at the third mile-stone from the city (i.e., Rome) on the day before the Kalends of January after having sat 23 years, ten months and eleven days. Then the seat was vacant for 15 days.[Silvester I (January 314 to December 335) is said to have baptized Constantine, but evidence, almost contemporary, shows that the emperor received this rite near Nicomedia at the hands of Eusebius, bishop of that city. The so-called Donation of Constantine is shown to have been spurious; yet it must have been of considerable antiquity. It was certainly known to Pope Adrian in 778, and was inserted in the false decretals toward the middle of the next century. This Donation is a supposed grant by the emperor in gratitude for his conversion by Silvester, not only of spiritual supremacy, but also of temporal dominion over Rome, Italy, and "the provinces, places and cities of the western regions."]

Year of the World 5533

Year of Christ 334

Mark (Marcus) the pope, a Roman, succeeded Silvester in the time of Constantine. He was a good man and a lover of the Christian faith. He ordained that the Hostian bishop, by whom the Roman bishop is consecrated, should employ choral vestments, and that on holy days, immediately after the gospel, the (confession of) faith should be sung with great voice by the priests and the people, as had already been ordained by the Nicene Council. He built two churches at Rome. He died and was buried in the cemetery of Balbina on the Ardeatine Way on the third of the Nones of October. He sat for two years eight months and 20 days; then the chair was vacant for 20 days.[Mark (Marcus), succeeded Silvester I as pope at Rome in the year 336. The records indicate that nothing noteworthy occurred during the time that he occupied the papal see.]

Year of the World 5535

Year of Christ 336

Julius (Iulius) the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of Emperor Constantius, and was a man of wonderful piety and learning, and, during the time the Arian heresy gained the upper hand, he was troubled with much disorder. Constantius, the son of Constantine, sent him into exile. After ten months he returned to Rome and punished the Arian bishops who had undertaken to hold a council at Antioch, which could not be held without the consent or authority of a Roman bishop. At Rome he built two churches and three cemeteries. He ordained that a priest should speak only before a spiritual judge; but if he mistrusted a judge, he could appeal to the Roman See; also, that all things belonging to the churches should be inventoried by a public scrivener or protonotary. He ordained 18 priests, three deacons, and nine bishops. He died and was buried on the Aurelian Way in the cemetery of Calopodius three miles from the city of Rome. He sat 15 years, two months and six days; and then the chair was vacant for twenty-five days.[ Julius I, pope from 337 to 352, succeeded Marcus after an interval of four months. He is chiefly known for his action in the Arian controversy. After Eusebius, at a synod held in Antioch, had renewed with his party their disposition of Athanasius, they resolved to send delegates to Constans, emperor of the West, and to Julius, setting forth the grounds of their procedure. Julius, after expressing an opinion favorable to Athanasius, invited both parties to lay the case before a synod to be presided over by himself. This the eastern bishops declined. On his second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome. In 342 Julius declared him innocent, and his doctrine orthodox, and a little later summoned the Council of Sardica, attended by 76 bishops, who quickly withdrew to Philippopolis and deposed Julius, along with Athanasius and others. The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod. Julius, after his death in April 352, was succeeded by Liberius.]

Year of the World 5543

Year of Christ 344

Liberius the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of Constantius and of Constantus. In their times, when a Council was hold at Milan, all of his people who were attached to Athanasius were sent into exile. In this assembly the eastern priests, cunning and crafty men, overcame the priests of the West boldly, brazenly and with guile. They denied that Christ is a person co-existent with God. This doctrine Liberius openly attacked, and because he would not condemn Athanasius as the emperor commanded, he was driven into exile by the Arian heretics; and for three years he lived away from Rome. However, the priests assembled and put Felix, a very distinguished man, in the place of Liberius, and they removed the two priests, Visacus and Valentus, from the church. By their petitions they influenced Constantius to recall Pope Liberius from exile, and to restore him to office. And although the pope was attached to the Arians, he graced the church of God with zeal. At length he died and was buried on the Salarian Way in the cemetery of Priscilla on the 9th day of the Kalends of May. He sat six years (although some say 16), 3 months, and 4 days. And then the chair was vacant six days.[Liberius, pope from 352 to 366, successor to Julius I, was consecrated on May 22nd. His first recorded act occurred after a synod had been held at Rome, and consisted in writing to Constantius, asking that a council be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius; but his messenger was compelled by the emperor to subscribe a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria. Liberius later was one of the few, who along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan, and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by Imperial command upon all the Western bishops. The consequence was his relegation to Beroea, in Thrace; Felix II (antipope) being consecrated his successor. On his agreeing to abandon Athanasius, and to accept the communion of his adversaries, the emperor recalled him from exile; but as the Roman see was officially occupied by Felix, a year passed before Liberius was sent to Rome. It was the emperor's intention that Liberius and Felix govern the church jointly, but when Liberius arrived, the Roman people expelled Felix. Liberius died September 24, 366.]