First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Then the aforesaid emperors realized that Emperor Constantine was held in great respect by all mankind, they relented against the Christians for some time. Yet Maxentius secretly sent forth his soldiers to slay all the Christians they might meet. He also found such zeal and pleasure in the black arts that he caused pregnant Christian women to be cut open to secure the fruits of their wombs, and the powder of these he used in the black arts. With the same folly and cruelty Maximian (Maximianus) also practised in the East, he even compensated the masters of the black arts for instruction in the evil arts. He gave credence to the cries of birds and soothsaying, and the Christians who disdained such matters he persecuted more than the rest. He ordered the old temples to be restored, and the gods to be worshipped according to ancient custom. Through divine vengeance this Maxentius was so bloated and ulcered in every limb and in his innards that there was no difference between him and a lazy ass. At length worms crawled forth from him in such a stench that no one could endure it; and so he died of a serious sickness, a gruesome and unstable being. He proceeded against the Christians as though they were to blame for his ills. Then Galerius sent Maximinus to govern the East in the place of Maximian, the latter employing the same cruelty, persecuting and slaying the Christians.

Christina (Cristina), a very famous virgin, suffered at Tyre in the aforesaid persecution of Maximian. She was born of very noble parents, and was so beautiful that many men sought her in marriage. Therefore her parents placed her in a tower, there to serve the gods as a virgin. But through the instruction of the Holy Spirit she scorned the idolatrous gods. Then her father learned of this and, since he could not divert her by threats, caused her to be stripped naked, flogged, and placed in a dungeon, where her tender limbs were torn. Then Christina took off her own flesh and threw it into her father's face, saying, Take it, you savage, and eat your own flesh. The enraged father fixed her to a wheel, placing fire and oil beneath her. Flames burst from the fire, which killed fifteen hundred people. The father attributed this to the black arts, and caused a large stone to be tied to her neck, and thus Christina was thrown into the sea by night. The angels received her, and Christ baptized her, and she returned to land. At length, after many tortures and the amputation of her breasts, Julian (Julianus) shot her with arrows, one through the heart, and one into her side. And thus with the palm of martyrdom she gloriously ascended to heaven.[Christina: The legend of this saint is one of those rejected by the Roman Catholic Church. The little town of Tyre, on Lake Bolsena, according to tradition her birthplace, has since been swallowed up by the waters of the lake. Christina is, however, celebrated all over Northern and Central Italy. Legend says she was the daughter of Urbanus, Roman patrician, and governor of the city. He was a pagan, but his daughter was early converted to the Christian faith, therefore she called herself Christina. One day she saw from her window many poor and sick, who begged alms; but having nothing to give them, she took the false gods of silver and gold, belonging to her father, and broke them up and divided them among the poor. For this her father caused her to be seized, beaten, and imprisoned. But angels healed her wounds. Torments proving unavailing, she was thrown into a lake, a millstone about her neck; but angels sustained the stone and she was carried to land. There her father caused her to be thrown into a fiery furnace, and for five days she remained in it singing the praises of the Lord. Then he ordered her shaved and dragged to the Temple of Apollo to sacrifice; but the idol fell before her. Next her tongue was ordered cut out, but she sang more sweetly. She was finally shot to death with arrows, and angels carried her to heaven.]

Menas (Menna), an Egyptian soldier of noble parentage, suffered at this time in the capital city of the country of Phrygia. After having accepted the King of Heaven, and having wandered in solitude, he stepped forth into the world and confessed himself a Christian. When Pyrrhus the duke heard of this, he spoke to him, saying, If you will worship the gods, all that you have done through your ignorance will be forgiven. But as Menas refused to obey his wishes, he caused him to be beaten with rawhide, and subjected to other tortures until the ground flowed with blood. He was then placed on a rack and burned with torches, and after being taken down, was tied hand and foot and dragged over iron spikes. At length, while singing the praises of the Lord, he was beheaded and his body thrown into a fire, from which the Christians took it and gave it honorable burial. The body was later carried to Constantinople, and there held in great veneration.[Menas, an Egyptian, but a soldier in the Roman army, professed Christianity. He abandoned the service and retired into a solitary place with some other Christians to escape the edicts of persecution published by Diocletian and Maximian in 298. There he remained until the general persecution in 303, when, burning with Christian enthusiasm, he returned, and entering the theater at Cotyaeus, in Phrygia, where the people were seeing a martyrs' exhibition, he cried at the top of his voice, "I was ready to be found by those that did not seek me." (Isaiah 65:1). All eyes were turned on him, and to Pyrrhus, the president, who questioned him. After confessing himself a Christian, he was immediately scourged until the soil was red with his blood. But Menas refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods. The judge then ordered his sides to be torn with iron hooks, and the wounds to be fretted with horsehair cloth. Finally wearied with tormenting him, the judge ordered him burned alive. Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria (380-385), relates some of the miracles alleged to have been wrought by this saint, some grotesque, and some marvelous.]

Julian (Iulianus), born in Antioch, a very Christian man, at this time suffered a most cruel martyrdom at Rome with the virgin Basillisa (Basilissa). He, together with a great number of priests and servants, sought refuge against cruel persecution; but they and many others suffered death on the 5th day of Ides of January.[Legend states that Julian was born at Antinoe, in Egypt, of noble parents. The love of God filled his heart from earliest childhood. At the age of eighteen his parents required him to marry; but this troubled him much in view of Paul's saying, "He that is unmarried cares for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord; but he that is married cares for the things that are of the world, how he may please his wife." (I Cor. 7:32-33). However, in a vision, Christ told him to obey his parents; and he married Basillisa. After the merriment attending the marriage, bride and groom entered their nuptial chamber; and they became aware of a Presence; and they saw Jesus and Mary, who congratulated them for seeking the glory that is eternal. And in that vision they saw their names inscribed in the Book of Life. The vision passed; but Julian and Basillisa spent the night in prayer, and singing praises to the Lord. When his parents died, Julian divided his house and made it into a hospital, and he spent his substance in relieving the sick. He ruled over the portion devoted to the men, and Basillisa governed the women's department. It is from this circumstance of Julian having been the first to establish a hospital, that he was been called Julian the Hospitaller. After many years Basillisa died in peace; but Julian was seized and subjected to cruel tortures in the Diocletian persecution, in which he finally suffered death.] After those ones Antonius, a priest, and Anastasius and Celsus, a child, together with his mother and very many others also all died on the 5th of the Ides of January.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Victor, a citizen of Milan, and since youth a Christian, and now in the military service of Maximinus, was brought before him as a Christian and asked to worship the pagan idols. Scorning these, he was flogged, but by divine intervention he was rendered immune to pain. Molten lead poured over him left him unharmed, and so, at the command of Maximian, he was beheaded on the eighth day of the Ides of May.[Victor was a Christian officer in the army of the emperor Maximian, to whom he was denounced for his new faith. Unable to dissuade him, he caused Victor to be degraded from his rank, his hands and feet to be bound, and as an object of derision dragged through the streets. He was brought back bruised and bloody to the tribunal of the prefects and again entreated to abandon his infatuation, and to worship the gods of the state; but again he refused. He was hung up by his wrists, beaten and torn with iron combs, and his head was finally cut off by the executioner's sword. In art Victor is usually represented as a Roman soldier bearing a palm and a sword.]

Saturninus, the priest, and Sisinus, the deacon, after having been arrested in Rome were imprisoned for a long time for confessing the Christian faith. They were placed on a rack, beaten with clubs and scorpions[A 'scorpion' is a whip or scourge that has spikes attached.], and were finally beheaded. Their bodies were buried on the Salarian Way.

Susanna, a very holy virgin, born of noble parents in Dalmatia, and a friend of Pope Caius, in this persecution at Rome, on the 3rd day of the Ides of August, being beheaded for the sake of the Christian faith, completed her martyrdom.[It is related that Susanna was of illustrious birth, the daughter of Gabinius (also spelled Gabinus), who was the brother of Pope Caius, and also nearly related to the emperor Diocletian. She was very fair, and remarkable for her learning and penetrating intellect. Diocletian wished to marry her to his adopted son Maximus, but she refused. Enraged by her firmness, he sent an executioner, who put her to death in her own house.]


Christina, with flowing tresses, and in voluminous robes, holds in her hands a millstone, symbol of her martyrdom.