First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Constantius and Galerius received the government upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian from the sovereignty of the empire; and they divided the country and its provinces between them. Galerius took Greece, Asia and the East, while Constantius was content with only Gaul and Spain; but Italy also fell to his lot. This Constantinus was an extraordinary man of excellent morals, zealous about the wealth of the country and its people, though not favorable to the establishment of a common fund, and he said it was better to employ riches and possessions through various persons than to lock them up in the treasury. He was moderate in his desire for money, and when on occasion he was about to hold a feast with numerous persons, it became necessary to collect revenues and contributions from house to house for the purpose. This Constantius was not only loved by the Gauls, but held in veneration by them, for it was through his rule that they escaped the craftiness of Diocletian and the bloodthirstiness of Maximian. Constantius was the grandson of Claudius the Second, and to him was espoused Theodora, stepdaughter of Maximian. She bore him six children. He divorced her and took Helena, captured daughter of the King of England. Constantius died in Britain in the thirteenth year of his reign. By reason of his gentleness and mildness he was reckoned among the gods.[Constantius I, who was surnamed Chlorus, "the pale," Roman emperor from 305 to 306, was the son of Eutropius, a noble of Dardania, and of Claudia, daughter of Crispus, who was a brother of Claudius II. He was one of the two Caesars appointed by Maximian and Diocletian in the year 292, and received the government of Gaul, Spain, and Britain. At the same time he married Theodora, the daughter of Maximian, for that purpose divorcing his wife (or concubine) Helena, by whom he had already had a son, Constantius (later known as Constantine the Great). As Caesar he rendered the empire important services. He extended his rule over Britain, and defeated the Alamanni with great loss. Upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in the year 305, Constantius and Galerius became the Augusti. Constantius died fifteen months later in an expedition against the Picts, in which he was accompanied by his son Constantius, who succeeded him in his share of the government.]

Galerius, a proficient man in the practice of arms, created two rulers, namely, Maximian (Maximianum) and Severus. To the first he assigned the East; to the second, Italy. And he lived in Greece (Illirico), which country he retained, having learned that the barbarian enemies of the Romans planned to go there. But Maximian, hoping to recover the empire he involuntarily lost, came out of retirement from Lucania to Rome; and by letters he informed Diocletian that he would again take unto himself the sovereignty he had abdicated. Against this revolt Galerius sent Severus to Rome with an army; but through treachery of the soldiery who were in league with Maxentius, he was circumvented, and fleeing to Ravenna, he was finally slain. And Maximian would have been slain by his own son had he not fled to Constantine, his son-in-law in Gaul. There he pretended that he had been driven out by his son, and for that reason attempted to assassinate Constantine. Now when the Franks and Alamanni[The Alamanni were an alliance of west Germanic tribes.] were defeated and their king taken prisoner, and his treachery was exposed by Fausta, the daughter of Maximian, to her husband, Maximian fled to Massilia (Marseilles), where he finally suffered the penalty for his misconduct.[Galerius, born near Sardica in Dacia, was the son of a shepherd. He rose from the ranks to the highest commands. He was appointed Caesar by Diocletian, along with Constantius Chlorus, in 292. As the same time he was adopted by Diocletian, receiving his daughter Valeria in marriage, and being entrusted with the command of Illyria and Thrace. In 297 he conducted an expedition against the Persian monarch Narses, whom he compelled to conclude a peace. On the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, in 305, Galerius became Augustus or emperor. In 307 he made an unsuccessful attempt to recover Italy. He died in 311. He was a persecutor of the Christians. It was, perhaps, at his instigation that Diocletian issued the decree "Edict Against the Christians" (303) that ordered the destruction of Christian scriptures and places of worship across the Empire, while prohibiting Christians from assembling for worship.]

Licinius, the emperor, a native of Dacia, by reason of his proficiency in the practice of arms and his acquaintanceship with Galerius, was elevated to a share in the government. But Constantine (Consantinus), a great man, being ambitious to rule all the world, made war against Licinius, first engaging him in Pannonia, secondly at Cibalis. And he conquered Dardania, Moesia, Macedonia, and countless other countries. Licinius was finally defeated on land and sea and slain in the fifteenth year of his reign at the age of sixty years. He was an avaricious and dissolute man and an enemy of the arts; and being ignorant, he called these a poison and a public affliction.[Licinius, Roman emperor (307-324), was by birth a Dacian peasant, and the early friend and companion of Galerius who raied him to the rank of Augustus. On the death of Galerius in 311, he concluded a peaceful arrangement with Maximinus II by which the Hellespont and the Bosphorus were to form the boundaries of the two empires. In 313 he married Constantia, sister of Constantine, and set out to encounter Maximinus who had invaded his dominions. He defeated him, and Maximinus died a few months later. Licinius and Constantine were now the only emperors and each was anxious to obtain the undivided rule. Licinius was defeated and compelled to purchase peace by ceding to Constantine, Greece, Macedonia and Illyria. After nine years hostilities were resumed. The great battle of Adrianople (323) followed by the reduction of Byzantium and a second great victory at Chalcedon placed Licinius at the mercy of Constantine, who put him to death in 324.]

Maxentius was named emperor at Rome at the same time when Constantine on the death of his father Constantius was crowned emperor in Britain; for the senators at Rome called to office as an augmenter of the empire this Maxentius (son of Herculius[Herculius is Maximian (Maxiamianus) Herculius, who was Caesar (i.e., junior Roman Emperor) from July 285 and Augustus (i.e., senior Roman Emperor) from April 1, 286 to May 1, 305. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian.]), who lived in an open village not far from Rome. Maxentius was a very cruel man and a grim persecutor of the Christians, although he loved literature. Among other things he was addicted to the black arts. In the fifth year of the reign of Constantine, the latter made war against Maxentius, killed many of his people, and finally defeated him at Rome at the Milvian Bridge. Although Maxentius built a bridge across the Tiber at Rome as a trap to deceive the enemy, in a moment of forgetfulness he himself ventured on the bridge and was drowned with many of his followers.[Maxentius, Roman emperor (306-312), was the son of Maximian and Eutropia, and received in marriage the daughter of Galerius. He was passed over in the division of the empire, which followed the abdication of his father and Diocletian in 305. However, he did not acquiesce, and being supported by the praetorian troops, he was proclaimed emperor in 306. He summoned his father Maximian (Maximianus) from retirement, who again assumed the purple. The military abilities of Maximian were of great service to his son, who was of indolent and dissolute habits. Maximian compelled the Caesar Severus who had marched upon Rome to retreat in haste to Ravenna, and soon afterward put the latter to death when he treacherously got him into his power (307). The emperor Galerius now marched against Rome in person, but Maximian compelled him to retreat also. Maxentius, relieved of these imminent dangers, proceeded to disentangle himself from the control of his father and succeeded in driving him from the court. Maxentius now crossed to Africa, which he ravaged with fire and sword because it had submitted to the independent authority of one Alexander. Upon his return to Rome Maxentius openly aspired to dominion over all the western provinces, and soon afterward he declared war against Constantine on the pretext that the latter had put to death his father, Maximian. Maxentius was defeated near Rome in 312. He attempted to escape over the Milvian Bridge into Rome, but perished in the river. He is represented by all historians as rapacious, cruel and lustful. The only favored class was the military, upon which he depended for safety. All his other subjects were made the victims of licentiousness and ruined by the most grinding exactions.]