First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Margaret (Margaretha), a very beautiful virgin of Antioch, born of pagan parents, and consigned to the care of a nurse, voluntarily permitted herself to be baptized. When, after the death of her mother, she was attending the sheep of her nurse, and now being fifteen years of age and had become quite beautiful, Olybrius (Olibrius) became enamored of her. But when he learned that she was a Christian, he imprisoned her. And as she was opposed to worshipping the pagan gods, she was hung up, beaten with rods, and her flesh torn with iron claws. Then she was thrown back into prison. There the Devil appeared to her in the form of a dragon, as though he wished to swallow her. But she made the sign of the cross, and he disappeared. Afterwards the judge ordered her to be beheaded[The German edition of the adds to this sentence the phrase "on the 12th day of July."]; and she prayed for mankind and for her persecutors, and for the pregnant women who call upon her in the time of childbirth. She completed her martyrdom on the 13th day of the Ides of July.[Legend says that Margaret was the daughter of a pagan priest of Antioch, named Theodosius; and in her infancy, being of poor health, she was sent to a nurse in the country. This woman, who was secretly a Christian, brought up Margaret in her faith. The maid, while employed in keeping the few sheep of her nurse, meditated on the mysteries of the gospels, and devoted herself to the service of Christ. One day the governor of Antioch, whose name was Olybrius, saw her and was captivated by her beauty. He commanded her to be taken to his palace, and decided that, if she were of free birth, to make her his wife. But Margaret scorned his offer, declaring herself the servant of Christ. Her father and all her relatives were struck with horror at this revelation. They fled, leaving her in the power of the governor, who endeavored to subdue her constancy by the most painful torments. They were so terrible that the tyrant himself, unable to endure the sight, covered his face with his robe; but Margaret did not flinch beneath them. They then dragged her to a dungeon, where Satan in the form of a terrible dragon, came upon her with his inflamed and hideous mouth wide open, and sought to terrify and confound her; but she held up a cross, and he fled before it. Or, according to the more popular version, he swallowed her up alive, but immediately burst; and she emerged unhurt. He returned in the form of a man to tempt her further, but she overcame him, and placing her foot on his head, forced him to confess his foul wickedness. She was again brought before the tyrant, and again refusing to abjure her faith, she was further tortured. Finally she was beheaded. And as they led her forth to death, she thanked and glorified God that her suffering was ended; and she prayed that those who invoked her in the pains of childbirth should find help through the merit of her sufferings, and in memory of her deliverance from the womb of the great dragon.]

Maximilian (Maximilianus), of the city of Ceyla, born of noble and devout parents, a highly learned and virtuous man, was upon the death of St. Quirinus, the Laurian bishop, elected bishop by common consent. This was in the time of the two emperors, Carus and Numerianus. He was taken to the Temple of Mars, where he refused to worship the idolatrous gods, and was therefore martyred by the people of the court at Ceyla, outside the walls, in the Year of Christ 289, on the fourth day of the Ides of October. The Duke of Bavaria brought him to Passau, where he is commemorated.

Blasius, who flourished at this time in all piety and mildness, was elected bishop by the Christians in Sebaste, a city of Cappadocia. To escape the cruel persecutions, Blasius fled into a cave in the mountains, frequented by wild animals. These he healed, and the ravens brought him food. Hearing of this the judge ordered him to be brought before him. On his way Blasius performed miracles. He was placed in a dungeon, and because he scorned the gods, he was hung on a timber and his body was torn with an iron comb. Seven Christian women gathered up his blood. Blasius and two little children of these women were beheaded.[Blasius (also Blasé, Blyse, or Blaise), was bishop of Sebaste, a city of Cappadocia, in Asia Minor. He spent a great part of his time in retirement on a hill not far from the city, where he withdrew, after the duties of his office were finished, to be alone with God. During the Diocletian persecution of the Christians he lay concealed in his retreat for some time; but he was finally brought before Agricolaus, governor of the province, and confessing himself a Christian, was thrown into prison. After enduring many tortures, he was killed in the beginning of the fourth century. Some historians refer this event to the year 316, under the reign of Licinius.]

Juliana, a very illustrious virgin of Como, a city of Gaul, suffered many cruel tortures and punishments there at this time. Afterwards she publicly fought with the Devil, overcoming him most gloriously. Then, overcoming fiery flames, burning oil, and the iron wheel with its sharp blades, she at last carried off the palm of martyrdom by having her head lopped off on the 14th day of the Kalends of March.

Primus and Felician (Felicanus), Roman spiritual men, having refused to sacrifice to idolatrous gods, were beheaded in this persecution after enduring many tortures. They attained the crown of martyrdom on the 5th day of the Ides of June.[Primus and Felician, were Roman citizens who lived as pagans until converted to Christianity. In the persecution of Diocletian and Maximian they were brought before the emperor, who invited them to offer incense to the gods; but they refused, and Primus was sent to prison, while the governor, Promotus, made every attempt to break the constancy of Felician by promises. Failing in this, the magistrate ordered his hands and feet transfixed with nails like those of the God whom he adored. He then told Primus that Felician had obeyed the emperors and had sacrificed. Disbelieving him, Primus remained firm and the governor ordered him to be beaten and his sides burned with torches. Wearying of torturing the brothers, he ordered their heads struck off.]

Pamphilius (Pamphilus), a Greek priest, and a relative of Eusebius of Caesarea, was a distinguished teacher of the Holy Scriptures. In these times, on the first day of June, he was martyred in the city of Caesarea, in Palestine.[Pamphilius, a native of Berytus (Beirut), and of rich and honorable family, studied in the famous schools of his native town, and attained great proficiency in every branch of learning then taught. Later he moved to Alexandria, and spent large sums in forming an extensive library, which he bestowed on the Church of Caesarea in Palestine where he took up his abode and established a school of sacred literature. To his labors the church was indebted for a correct edition of the Bible, which he transcribed himself. He held Origen in high esteem, and during his imprisonment wrote an apology for him in five books. He also wrote an abridgement or exposition of Acts. He was remarkable for his charity, humility, and austere life. His eloquence made him especially obnoxious to the pagans. In 307 the governor of Palestine had him apprehended, tortured and imprisoned for nearly two years. The governor's successor ordered him racked and executed on February 16, 309. Eusebius of Caesarea, the historian, who has written the life of Pamphilius, and who had been his fellow-prisoner, out of respect for his memory took the surname Pamphili.]

Quintin (Quintinus), a soldier of Gaul, suffered martyrdom at the hands of the emperor Maximian (Maximianus) on the last day of October. Through angelic revelation his body was discovered intact fifty-five years later.[Quintin (Quintinus), son of Zeno, a Roman senator, held a high command in the Roman army, but was converted to the Christian faith. According to legend he was imprisoned and cruelly tortured. An angel broke his chains, and he went into the market place and began to preach, converting many people. He was again arrested and tortured, but the torturers left him uninjured. Two iron spits were then run through him from his head to his feet, and finally his head was struck off. His body was thrown into the Somme, where it remained for fifty years under water. A lady named Eusebia recovered it, built an oratory for it, and this formed the nucleus of the church and town of Saint Quintin.]

Rufus (Ruffus), highly renowned Roman soldier, was subjected to much oppression with his entire household by the emperor Diocletian, and became a martyr of Christ. Although many other Christians were slain at this time, we have fixed upon only the most renowned and distinguished.


Margaret (Margaretha), in ornate dress and wearing the crown of martyrdom. From under her right arm emerges a dragon, her symbol, to whom she is holding up the cross by which he was subdued.


Blasius, bishop and martyr, represented in Episcopal robes and mitre. In one hand he holds a crozier, in the other a taper, typical of his being "a burning and shining light."


Quintin (Quintinus), soldier of Gaul, in full armor, and carrying a pennant.