First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Dorothea, a glorious virgin, of the city of Caesarea, in the province of Cappadocia, was seized at this time for Christ’s sake, hung on a gallows, beaten severely with fists, and finally beheaded. Upon her passing out, she was laughed at by Theophilus the scholar, who said to her, Ha! You bride of the Lord, send us roses from the paradise of your bridegroom. Dorothea appeared to him as a child carrying a small basket containing three apples and three roses. These he soon received, and he was amazed at this, for it was cold in the month of February; and he was converted, and after severe tortures he was beheaded.[Legend recounts that Dorothea was a noble virgin who dwelt in the province of Cappadocia, and in the city of Caesarea. None in the city compared to her in beauty and grace of person. She was a Christian, serving God day and night with prayers and fasting. Sapritius (or Fabricius), the governor of the city, was a severe persecutor of the Christians, and hearing of the maiden and of her beauty, he ordered her brought before him. Being ordered to serve the pagan gods or die, she answered mildly, "Be it so; the sooner shall I stand in the presence of Him whom I most desire to behold." Then the presence of Him whom I most desire to behold." Then the governor asked whom she meant, and she replied "I mean the Son of God, my espoused! His dwelling is Paradise; by his side are joys eternal; and in his garden grow celestial fruits and roses that never fade." The governor ordered her back to her dungeon, sending two women to convert her to idolatry; but they were converted to Christianity instead. Then the governor, furious, ordered these two other maidens to be burned, compelling Dorothea to witness their torments. But Dorothea stood by, bravely encouraging the victims in their faith. Then she herself was condemned to cruel torture; and she was finally beheaded. When being led forth to her death, Theophilus, a young lawyer of the city, called to her "Ha! fair maiden, are you going to join your bridegroom? Send me, I pray you, of the fruits and flowers of that same garden of which you have spoken: I am eager to taste of them!" And she promised to grant his request. Coming to the place of execution, she knelt down and prayed; and suddenly there stood up beside her a beautiful boy, holding a basket containing three apples and three fresh-gathered roses, and these she asked the lad to carry to Theophilus. And so the angel (for such the boy was) carried them to Theophilus, with the result that he became a Christian, following Dorothea in martyrdom.]

Eleutherius, a certain very illustrious soldier, was martyred in this persecution, with numberless persons, at Nicomedia. Of these some were burned, some beheaded, and some thrown into the sea. After this Eleutherius had been tortured in every limb, and yet became stronger and stronger; he was at length, like gold, proven by fire, and with the crown of martyrdom entered Paradise on the sixth of the Nones of October.[Legend recounts that when the palace of Domitian at Nicomedia having caught fire, Eleutherius, a soldier, and some other Christians were blamed. Of these some were decaptitated, some drowned, and others burned alive.]

Sergius and Bachus, very noble men, distinguished at the court of Maximian (Maximianum), were accused in this persecution; and they were taken to the temple of Jupiter to worship the idolatrous gods. When they refused to do so, they were stripped of their military uniform, and Bachus was beaten with rawhides until his blood flowed and his abdomen was torn and his vitals exposed. His corpse was protected against the wild animals by birds, until he was buried. And as Sergius would not permit himself to be drawn away (from his faith) he was shod with shoes with nails driven into them, and in these he was compelled to run before a wagon for many miles. At last, still firm in the Christian faith, he was beheaded on the Nones of October.[Sergius and Bachus were, according to the martyrologies, officers in the household of the emperor, Maximian. One day, when the emperor went into the temple of Jupiter to offer sacrifice, he noticed that these officers had remained outside. Suspecting the reason, he ordered them to join him in adoring the god. They refused, and Maximian sent them to Antiochus, governor of the province of Augusta Euphratorum, and there Bachus was scourged until he died; and Sergius, after having been made to walk in boots with nails in the soles so as to tear his feet, was executed by the sword. Rome has a church dedicated to Sergius and Bachus.]

The four crowned ones, namely, Severinus, Severianus, Carpopherus (Carpoferus) and Victorinus, refused to sacrifice to the idolatrous god Aesculapius at the command of Diocletian, and therefore they were beaten to death with scourges containing leaden balls, and their bodies were thrown to the dogs in the streets. They were buried at night by St. Sebastian and Pope Melchiades. And since it was not possible to discover their names, thus on the seventh of the Ides of November they are thus honored. Afterwards their names were revealed.[The Four Crowned Martyrs, who died on November 8, 303, were famous wood- and stone-carvers, who would not take pagan commissions, and in consequence were flogged to death, along with five of their pupils or converts. They watch over the work of masons and sculptors.]

Fides, a very holy virgin, in the city of Agenus, was urged by Dacianus, the judge, by flattery and threats, to sacrifice to the pagan gods. Declining to do so she was stretched upon an iron grill over a coal fire; still she remained constant in her martyrdom, and in consequence many people were converted to the Christian faith. When Saint Caprasius (who through fear had concealed himself) saw the martyrdom of this virgin, he prayed God to give her victory; and he saw a snow-white dove descend from heaven and place a brilliant crown of gold and precious gems on her head; and the fire was extinguished. And so he offered himself up as a Christian, and he, together with Primus and Felicianus, and with the virgin Fides, were all beheaded.

Euphemia, a very noble virgin, together with 70 others, was arrested in the city of Chalcedon in Asia by a proconsul whose name was Priscus, because they would not worship the pagan god Mars. And so they were threatened with every form of torture, all of which for the sake of Christ they steadfastly endured. Their tortures included: imprisonment, beatings, the wheel, fires, the weights of sharp stones, wild beasts, lashings, hot-irons. And, torn apart by a wild beast, she gave back her immaculate spirit to God. Her mother Theodora and her father buried her body on the sixth of the Kalends of October.

Euphemia, whom the stories say was famed for her beauty and fortitude, is one of those whom the Eastern Orthodox Church has distinguished with the epitaph Great. All that is known of her rests on the description of a picture, in which she is portrayed as a person of beauty, grace, modesty and gravity, and attired in a plain brown mantle, worn in Greece by philosophers and expressing a renunciation of worldly pleasures and vanities. She appears before the judge, Priscus, between two soldiers, one dragging her forward, the other pushing her from behind. In another part of the picture she is being tortured by two executioners, one seizing her long hair and pulling back her head, the other striking her on the mouth with a mallet. In the background is the interior of the dungeon. Euphemia, seated on the earth, raises her hands to heaven and prays for mercy and strength to bear her sufferings. Near the prison is a pile of burning sticks, in the midst of which she stands extending her arms to heaven.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Euphemia thus: "Euphemia, a noble virgin, together with 70 others, was taken in the city of Chalcedon, and because they would not worship the heathen god Mars, they were threatened with every form of torture; but they remained firm unto death."

Felix, bishop in Apulia, together with Adauctus and Januarius the priests, and Fortunatus and Septimus the lectors, after having been long imprisoned during this period, traveled through all Africa and Sicily, risking many dangers, and finally, on the ninth day of the Kalends of November, they completed (their martyrdom) by being put to death by the sword.[]

Also another Felix and Fortunatus, brothers, during this persecution at Aquileia, were set up on a gallows, and executioners held hot stones against their sides; but by divine power those were extinguished. At length seething oil was poured over them, but they remained unharmed. After their judgment had been given, on the third day of the Ides of June they were beheaded.[With Felix and Fortunatus we are on somewhat shakier ground than normal. One account is the following. In 295 CE the Emperor Diocletian issued his edict of Persecution against the Church of Christ, and not long afterwards the prefect, Euphemius, came to Aquileia to examine and punish the Christians there. And when he entered the city he went to the temple of Jupiter and there offered sacrifices, and then sent a herald to call all the citizens together there. One of the magistrates of the town informed the prefect that two brothers, Christians, had come there. The brothers were arrested and brought before Euphemius. Having confessed their faith and refused to worship idols, they were tortured and finally killed with the sword.]