First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Quirinus, a Roman tribune, was executed with the sword in this persecution on the 30th day of March, after his tongue was cut out and his hands and feet were cut off on the Roman road called the Appian Way.[Quirinus, a Roman soldier, serving under the Emperor Aurelian, did not hesitate to profess and preach the Christian faith openly. He suffered martyrdom, being dragged to death by horses and his tongue thrown to a hawk.]

Theodora, the virgin sister of the martyr Hermetius, was captured by Aurelian at this time and fearlessly underwent martyrdom.[Theodora was the sister of Hermes, prefect of Rome, who, with his entire household of twelve hundred people, was converted to Christianity. Her legend is contained in the apocryphal . At that time Aurelian was governor of the city under Hadrian. Hermes was persecuted and tortured because he became a Christian. When brought before Aurelian to account for her brother’s great wealth, Theodora answered that their goods had been distributed among the poor, and that all she had to give to Christ was her poor weak body. The magistrate ordered her beaten and then executed.]

Valentine (Valentinus), a Roman priest, after giving evidence of exceptional learning and writing, was imprisoned by the Emperor Claudius; and being asked his opinion concerning the pagan gods, said: Jupiter, Mercury, and the other gods were miserable human beings. Afterwards he enlightened the daughter of Asterius. He brought her and forty-nine persons of her household to the Christian faith. Finally, at the command of the emperor, he was severely beaten with clubs, and was beheaded on the 14th day of the month of February.[Valentine, or Valentinus, is the name of a number of saints. The most celebrated are the two martyrs whose festivals fall on February 14, one a Roman priest, the other Bishop of Terni (Interamna). The Passion of the former is part of the legend of Saints Marius and Martha and their companions; that of the latter had no better historical foundation. No argument can be drawn from either account to differentiate the two saints. Both belonged to the reign of Claudius and died the same day, and both were buried on the Via Flaminia. The association of lovers’ festivals with Valentine seems to arise from the fact that the feast of the saint falls in early spring—a purely accidental matter.] Cyrilla, a daughter of the emperor Decius, and a good Christian, was also beheaded at this time with the sword, as histories state, on the 28th day of October.[Cyrilla, according to the fabulous , was the daughter of Emperor Decius, who, having put to death Lawrence, became possessed with a devil and died. This so frightened his wife as well as his daughter Cyrilla that they believed in Christ and were baptized. The wife died a few days later because of the excitement. The daughter was brought before Claudius and was executed. Baring-Gould characterizes the story as "ridiculous nonsense," and utterly unhistorical. He observes that "The Acts of St. Lawrence are a poor and foolish romance without the merit even of being interesting. Probably Cyrilla and Tryphonia (her mother) are the creations of imagination. Certainly Decius had no wife and daughter of those names."]

The ninth persecution of the church occurred at the instance of Emperor Aurelian (Aurelianus). After accepting evil counsel and sending forth letters and writings to the governors of the Roman countries and regions for the persecution of the Christians, he was visited with divine judgment from heaven, and he died disgracefully.

Geneva (Gebennarum), the highly renowned city of the Allobroges, was built in this year among the Gauls by Emperor Aurelian; and he named it Aureliana after himself. Although Gaul had freed itself of the cruelty and tyranny of the emperors Valerian and Gallienus, and for twenty years remained free of Roman domination, yet through the power of Aurelian the emperor, it was again subjugated. This city is located in Helvetii (Helveciorum)[Switzerland.], and beside it is the Lusitanian Sea, out of which flows the river Rhone (Rhodanus), over which passes a lovely wooden bridge. The city is large and beautiful and has many citizens, being the industrial or mercantile center of the entire Allobrogian country. It has many fairs, and unlimited wealth is brought there. For a long time this city was under the jurisdiction of the Duke of Savoy (Sabaudie), and it is still under his rule. In this city were many celebrated man, such as Maximinus, the confessor, and Anianus[Anianus may be a misspelling for Avianus, which is the spelling in the German edition of the .], the bishop, both distinguished for their piety and learning; also Laetus (Letus), the priest, nobly informed in the Holy Scriptures; and many others. This city is so situated that it extends upward on a mountain; and it has very fruitful vineyards. Here is also a bishop’s chair. In this city Amadeus, the first Duke of Savoy, gave the Duchy to his firstborn son, and he taught him to observe spiritual ways and to pray. And between his two sons, two beautiful youths, the one a Duke of Savoy, the other a Count at Geneva, he rode into the council at Basle (Basileam), and was there crowned as a bishop of the Roman church, as is stated below.

Geneva (Gebenna), a city and canton of Switzerland, is situated at the extreme southwest corner both of the country and of the Lake Geneva. In prehistoric times a great lake city, built upon piles, which may still be seen, existed where the waters from the Alpine lakes spread out over the plain before narrowing into the channel of the Rhone. This city was the prehistoric Geneva. After the end of the period of the lake dwellings, the inhabitants established themselves on the hill on the left bank of the lake and river. When the district of Wienne became a Roman province, Geneva became a Roman city, with part of what is now Savoy dependent on it. When the empire became Christian, a bishop was appointed at Geneva. After the barbarian invasions, the city shrank to its former size, and it was now concentrated on high ground. The pagan temples were converted into Christian churches. At the top of the hill rose Saint Peter’s, while Saint Victor’s was built in the detached part of the town. Geneva owed its importance to its bridge over the Rhone. Geneva lay on the path of the armies marching to the conquest of Italy. Charlemagne held an assembly here in 773. During the feudal period the Burgundian kings had more to fear from the hereditary counts of Geneva than from the elected bishops. Rudolph III conferred estates on the bishops and favored them at the expense of the counts. On his death in 1032 the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire inherited his lands. Frederick Barbarrosa confirmed the temporal powers of the bishop of Geneva, who became a prince of the empire, and made the church independent of the nobles of the district. The count of Geneva had a residence in the town, the old royal chateau; but he had to do homage to the bishop for the chateau and for other fiefs, though he was the sole direct ruler of Geneva. But the Genevese were always characterized by their passion for independence, and attempted toward the end of the 13th century to create a municipal organization of their own. They were able to play off against one another the rival rulers of the district.

In Maurienne, a remote district of the country, there presently arose a count who came to be known as the count of Savoy and was on bad terms with both the count of Geneva and the bishop. His nephew, Amadeus the Great, declared himself protector of the citizens, who had formed themselves into a municipality with syndics and other officers. The count of Geneva was reduced to a mere vassal of his cousin of Savoy, while the bishop was compelled to yield his palace to the latter, together with the vidomnat, the office empowering him to administer summary justice in the city. Finally the bishop recognized the municipality, after the citizens, posted on the towers of St. Peter’s, had withstood bombardment by the count of Geneva from his castle. This castle was dismantled in 1320. In the meantime the citizens had defeated the count’s army. By calling in the count of Savoy the Genevese had fallen out of the frying pan and into the fire. They had been able to free themselves from the count of Geneva and to defy the bishop, but they discovered that their protector intended to make himself "prince" of the city. The counts of Savoy endeavored to obtain the election to the bishopric of Geneva for themselves, or for a cadet of the family, or for a prelate devoted to its interests. Involved in the struggle between France and Burgundy through the policy of the House of Savoy, the town was ransomed by the Swiss after their victory over Charles the Bold in 1477. The measures taken by Louis XI had destroyed the fairs of Geneva, and the prevalent distress of the 15th century became still worse in the 16th, when Charles III, in 1525, went so far as to impose his will on the assembly of the citizens. But better times came at last, thanks to the commercial relations established between Geneva and the Swiss. Through wars Charles III lost his lands. Once the Genevese were rid of him, they were able to organize their independent republic in peace.