First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Veronica, a woman of Jerusalem, disciple of Christ, and esteemed for her piety and virtue, was at this time called to Rome with the handkerchief of Christ by Tiberius the emperor, through his strongest man, Volusianus. For this same emperor (as some relate) had been seized with a serious malady. As soon as he had received this holy woman and had touched the picture of Christ, he was cured of all illness. For this reason the emperor afterwards held this Veronica in great esteem, and she remained at Rome with the apostles Peter and Paul to her end. Pope Clement erected church to her. This is the woman who suffered with an issue of blood (as the Gospels state), and was cured of it by the Lord after touching the hem of his garment. At the time of his suffering she received from him as a token of his love this picture of his face. This same picture, impressed on cloth, Veronica bequeathed to Pope Clement and his successors in her will. To this day it is viewed with great devotion and contemplation at St. Peter’s Church by people of the Christian faith, and much has been found written in praise of it.[It is an ancient tradition that when Jesus was on the way to Calvary, bearing the cross, he passed by the door of a compassionate woman, who, beholding the sweat of agony upon his brow, wiped his face with a napkin, or, as others say, with her veil, and the features of Jesus remained miraculously impressed upon the linen. To this image was given the name Vera Icon, ‘the true image’ (Latin vera = ‘true’ and Greek eikon = ‘image’). The name of the image was insensibly transferred to the woman of whom the legend is related. According to the active imagination of the people, she was Veronica, or Berenice, the niece of King Herod, being the daughter of his sister Salome, who had been devoted to the pomps and vanities of the world, but on witnessing the sufferings and meekness of Jesus, was suddenly converted. The miraculous power of the sacred image impressed upon her napkin being universally recognized, she was sent for by the emperor Tiberius to cure him of a mortal malady; but since the emperor had already died by the time she arrived, she remained at Rome with Peter and Paul until she suffered martyrdom under Nero; or, according to another legend, she came to Europe in the same vessel with Lazarus and Mary Magdalene, and suffered martyrdom either in Provence or Aquitaine. According to Anna Jameson (from whose work the above is taken), these legends have been rejected by the Church since the eleventh century; but the memory of this compassionate woman, and the legend of the miraculous image, lingered on in the imagination of the people.]

Xenarchus, a peripatetic philosopher, worthy of commemoration, and whom Strabo the historian heard in his youth, died at Seleucia in Cicilia during the time of the emperor Tiberius. And, as it is said, he did not reside there for long but went to Alexandria, Athens, or Rome to study. To old age he was always held in great esteem. Augustus the emperor favored him. But not long before this time and since his death, his works were lost.[ Xenarchus of Seleucia in Cicilia (c. 50 BCE-c. 25 CE), was a Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian, in the time of Strabo, who heard him. He taught successively at Alexandria, Athens and Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Augustus.]

Philo the Jew, a native of Alexandria, and a highly educated man, was held in great esteem during these times. He wrote many excellent and daring things, and with his skill and versatility he silenced the evil writings of Appianus (Appionis) against the Jews. Many have spoken of his versat (in office)ility, saying that either Philo followed Plato, or Plato followed Philo. He finally came to Rome and had speech and dealings with Saint Peter. By him he was so well instructed in the faith that he afterward wrote much in praise of the Christian religion and practices; and these writings (as Jerome attests) are reckoned among the books called Ecclesiastes. And foremost of all he wrote enlightening interpretations upon the five books of Moses, and many other works.[Philo Judacus, the Jew, was born in Alexandria, and was descended from a priestly family of distinction. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome (40 CE) on an embassy to the emperor Caligula in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor. His most important works treat of the books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Hebrew Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two. He maintained that the fundamental truths of the former were derived from the Mosaic revelation, and to work out an agreement, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses.]

Agrippina was born to Marcus Agrippa by Julia, the daughter of the emperor Octavian. She was the mother of the emperor Caius Caligula and was esteemed among the intelligent and renowned women. She was, in those times, deliberately caused so much sorrow by the emperor Tiberius, that she starved herself to death. She was married in her youth to Germanicus, a handsome and virtuous youth, whom Tiberius had been obliged to adopt. She bore him three sons. One, called Caligula, afterward ruled over the Romans. She also bore him three daughters, one of whom was called Agrippina and was the mother of Nero. Her husband was done away with by poison through Tiberius; and because she mourned the death of her husband with great lamentations, as was the custom of women, Tiberius therefore hated her, and those of his people who held her by the arms increased her sorrow by mockery and unbecoming conduct. She determined to escape his haughtiness by starvation, and soon she refrained from eating her food. When Tiberius learned of this, being accustomed to compel women to eat by threats and beatings, he caused her to be fed by force. But being still more embittered against Tiberius in consequence, she gradually accomplished her own death by this means. And as by her death she earned much praise on the part of her own people, so she at the same time caused Tiberius much harm and ill repute.[Agrippina, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, married Germanicus, by whom she had nine children, among whom was the emperor Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. She was distinguished by her virtues and heroism, and shared all the dangers of her husband’s campaigns. On his death in 17 CE she returned to Italy; but the favor in which she was received by the people increased the hatred and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother Livia had long entertained toward her. For some years Tiberius disguised his hatred, but at length under the pretext that she was forming ambitious plans, he banished her to the island of Pandataria (30 CE), where she died three years later, probably by voluntary starvation.]

Agrippa the Great, son of king Aristobulus, succeeded his father and ruled over the Jews for seven years. He was by nature a good man, and he adorned the city of Jerusalem at his own expense. But the son of Aristobulus, whom the father of Herod killed, came to Tiberius; but as the latter would not entertain his complaint, he stayed at Rome to secure assistance by various means. Now Agrippa was very friendly with Caius (Caligula), the son of Germanicus, and after he said that Germanicus should be emperor, he was accused before Tiberius, and by him imprisoned and held in severe confinement for six months, until the death of Tiberius, when he was liberated by Caius, who gave him the region called Philippi, and so made him a king. In lieu of the iron chain that he wore in prison, Caius gave him a golden one. When he left Rome and came to Jerusalem, he went into the temple and made a sacrifice, and there hung up the same chain as a perpetual memorial. But as he finally went to Caesarea, and permitted himself to be called a god, he was slain by an angel, and with a bloated body he said: I was formerly called a god, so now here I lie in the bondage of death. He died at the age of 57 years, and left a seventeen-year-old son Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Maria, and Drusilla. He had a brother named Herod, king of Chalcis, who acted as regent for the young king.[Agrippa Herodes, called "Agrippa the Great," son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great, was educated at Rome with the future emperor Claudius, and Drusus the son of Tiberius. Having given offense to Tiberius, he was imprisoned; but Caligula, on his accession, released him, and gave him the tetrarchies of Abilene, Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services Judea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions. His government was mild and gentle, and he was exceedingly popular among the Jews. It was probably to increase his popularity with them that he caused the apostle James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison. The manner of his death that took place in the same year at Caesarea (44 CE) is related in Acts 12. By his wife Cypros he had a son, Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Mariamne (called Maria in the ), and Drusilla. According to Acts 12:21-23 "upon a certain day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an oration to them. And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god and not of a man. And immediately the angel of the Lord struck him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten by worms, and gave up the Spirit."]