First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Origen (Origenes), a native of Alexandria, son of a martyr, and a priest of the Alexandrian church, a prince among all the philosophers and theologians of his time, flourished in these times at Alexandria. From youth he was very Christian and a student of exceptional intelligence; and in the tenth year of the Emperor Severus Pertinax, during the persecution of the Christians in which his father Leonides was martyred, Origen, his young son, urged him to martyrdom. After the death of his father, Origen, according to his means, protected those who were oppressed with punishments by the tyrants, and comforted those who were led forth to their death. Afterwards he devoted himself entirely to spiritual matters and held the office of preacher. He was of such great intelligence that no tongue or scripture was unknown to him. He observed wonderful moderation in his food and drink, and held himself aloof from strange matters. He followed Christ in poverty, and for many years wandered about barefooted. Many people, emulating his virtue and Christian faith, willingly suffered martyrdom. He successfully fought against the heresies of the Ebionites, who maintained that Christ was a natural person born of Joseph and Mary, and interpreted the law according to Jewish custom. He never slept in a feather bed, and entirely abstained from meat. In his zeal for the faith he castrated himself. Because of his wisdom in the Scriptures and his strict life, Mamaea, the Christian woman, mother of Alexander, caused him to be called to Antioch, and she and her son held him in great esteem. Origen possessed so much knowledge and scriptural wisdom that seven scribes were hardly able to keep pace with him. And so he employed another seven scribes and seven well-instructed young virgins, all of whom tired under the burden of transcribing his dictation. And although Porphyrus, the grim persecutor of the Christians, considered Origen an enemy, yet at times he also praised him, calling him a prince of philosophers, and stating that Origen followed all the secret arts of Plato. Jerome says that this Origen wrote six thousand books. Yet (as Augustus and Jerome state), he erred in many respects, principally in the book of princes, called Periarchon, from which the Origenian heresy originated. These heretics said that Christ in his great mercy would not only redeem mankind, but also the rebel angels. But (as some say), Origen, in a letter to Pope Fabianus, recanted the evil things that he thus set forth. Some place the responsibility for his errors upon Ambrosius, one of his opponents, who exposed his unauthorized writings. And therefore some, such as Eusebius and Rufianus (Ruffino), and others, praise Origen; and some of his writings are accepted by the churches. At last, in the Year of Our Salvation 236, he died at the age of sixty-nine and was buried at Tyre.[Origenes, usually called Origen, one of the most eminent of the early Christian writers, was born at Alexandria in 186 CE. He received a careful education from his father Leonides, who was a devout Christian, and subsequently became a pupil of Clement of Alexandria. His father having been put to death in the persecution of the Christians in the 10th year of Severus (202), Origen was reduced to destitution; whereupon he became a teacher of grammar, and soon acquired a great reputation. At the same time he gave instruction to several of the pagans, and, though only in his 18th year, was appointed to the office of Catechist, which was vacant through the dispersion of the clergy as a result of the persecution. He showed a zeal and self-denial beyond his years. Deeming his profession as teacher of grammar inconsistent with his sacred work, he gave it up, and lived on practically nothing. His food and his periods of sleep were restricted within the narrowest limits; and he performed an act of self-mutilation by catrasting himelf, in obedience to what he regarded as the recommendation of Jesus (Matthew 29:12). At a later time, however, he repudiated this literal understanding of Jesus’ words. He visited Rome but made only a short stay. Returning to Alexandria he continued his duties as Catechist, and pursued his Biblical studies. He visited Caesarea and traveled to Greece. On his return he encountered the enmity of Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria. He was deprived of his office of Catechist and compelled to leave Alexandria. Demetrius afterward procured his degradation from the priesthood and his excommunication for the obnoxious character of some of his opinions. He withdrew to Caesarea, where he was received with greatest kindness. In the Decian persecution (249-251) he was put to torture, and though his life was spared, his sufferings hastened his end. He died in 253 or 254 in his 69th year at Tyre, where he was buried. His work, , was the principal object of attack with Origen’s enemies, and the source from which they derived their chief evidence of his various alleged heresies. Of his more distinctive tenets, several had reference to doctrine of the Trinity, to the incarnation, and to the existence of Christ’s human soul, which, as well as the pre-existence of other human souls, he affirmed. He was charged also with holding the corporeity of angels, and with other errors as to angels and demons. He held the freedom of the human will and ascribed to man a nature less corrupt and depraved than was consistent with orthodox views of the operation of divine grace. He held the doctrine of the universal restoration of the guilty, conceiving that the Devil alone would suffer eternal punishment.]

Ulpianus (Vulpianus), the jurist, an excellent man and adviser of the aforementioned Alexander, was at this time held in great honor by said emperor because of his remarkable skill and learning. He excelled all other teachers in interpreting the words of the old law, and left behind many writings.[Domitius Ulpianus, a celebrated jurist, derived his origin from Tyre in Phoenicia, but was probably not a native of Tyre himself. The greater part of his juristical works were written during the reign of Caracalla. He was banished or deprived of his functions under Elagabalus, but on the accession of Alexander Severus, became the emperor’s chief adviser. The emperor conferred on him the office of Scriniorum magister (‘Master of the Records’) and made him a consiliaris (‘adviser’ or ‘counselor’). He also held the office of Praefectus Annonae (‘a Roman imperial official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome’) and was likewise made Praefectus Praetorio (‘Commander of the Praetorian Guard’). Ulpian perished in the reign of Alexander by the hands of the soldiers, who killed him in the presence of the emperor and his mother in 228. His last promotion was probably an unpopular measure. The great legal knowledge, the good sense, and the industry of Ulpian place him among the first of the Roman jurists; and he has exercised a great influence on the jurisprudence of modern Europe through the copious extracts from his writings preserved by the compilers of the Justinian .]

Paul (Paulus) of Padua, also flourished at this time in philosophy and jurisprudence, and was of great help to the said Emperor Alexander in restoring the commonwealth that had fallen into neglect. He also left behind various writings on jurisprudence.[Julius Paulus, one of the most distinguished of Roman jurists, was in the auditorium of Papinian, and consequently was acting as a jurist in the reign of Septimus Severus. He was exiled by Elagablaus, but recalled by Alexander Severus when the latter became emperor, and was made a member of the consilium. He also held the office of Praefectus Praetorio. He survived his contemporary, Ulpian. Paulus was perhaps the most fertile of all the Roman law writers, and there is more excerpted from him in the Digest than from any other jurist except Ulpian. Upwards of 70 works by Paulus are quoted in the . Of these his greatest was in 80 books.]

Julius Frontinus, a philosopher, rich in learning in all the arts, flourished with the aforesaid men of learning, gave assistance to Alexander, and also wrote much.[ Julius Frontius was a Latin rhetorician who gave instructions in his art to Alexander Severus.]

Tryphon (Triphonem) was a disciple of Origen and also lived at this time. A number of his letters are extant. Being a man highly informed in the Scriptures, he wrote a book of the red cows of Deuteronomy; and he also wrote on other matters.[Tryphon, probably the Jewish philospher whose name appears in Justin’s (100-165 CE) well known .]

Minucius (Minutius) Felix, a distinguished orator at Rome, wrote a dialogue entitled Octavius, and also wrote against sorcerers and seers.[M. Minucius Felix, a Roman lawyer, who flourished about 230 CE, wrote a dialogue entitled , which occupies a conspicuous place among the early essays written in defense of Christianity.]

Ambrose (Ambrosius), a Greek deacon, was in high esteem at this time. And although he was at first subject to the errors of Marcion, he was drawn from this course by Origen. Origen wrote many books to Ambrose at the latter’s expense. This noble man of exceptional intelligence died before Origen, and was scorned by many people because, though a rich man, he did not remember his poor old friend at the time of his death.[]