First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Lucius, king of the English (Anglorum), son of King Coilus (Coilli) of Fustus(?), receiving the kingdom among the English or the Britians, was called by the Lord. He sent a message to Eleutherius, the pope, requesting him to enroll his people among the number of the Christians. Immediately the pope sent Fugacius and Damianus, two distinguished men, to baptize the king and his people. After receiving baptism Lucius gave over all the pagan temples for use as Christian churches. These he increased and enlarged, and then left his kingdom. He first went to Gaul and then to Upper Rhaetia, passing through the city of Augsburg (Augustam) to Chur (Curiensem); and there he brought many people to the dominion of the Lord, rested in virtue and peace, and performed illustrious miracles. His sister Emerita lived in a castle nearby, called Trimus. Through fire she earned the everlasting crown, and her day is the 3rd of December. Lucius conquered for Christ all of Bavaria and Rhaetia between the Alps.[Lucius, legendary king of Britain, is said to have been baptized by Timothy the disciple of Paul, and by solemn decree to have converted all the pagan temples throughout his realm into Christian churches, and to have transformed the sees of twenty-eight flamens (ancient Roman priests) and three arch-flamens into so many bishoprics and arch-bishoprics. According to another version of the story, Lucius sent letters to Pope Eleutherius desiring instructors in the Christian religion, and was supplied with Faganus Duvanus, who converted all Britain and then returned to Rome to give an account of their success. According to one account Lucius died childless at Gloucester and was buried there; but according to the belief of the Church of Coire in the Grisons, he made a pilgrimage to Rome with his sister Emerita, and died at Coire, where he was interred. The earliest British testimony to this extravagant story is that of Nennius (9th century), who says, "After the birth of Christ one hundred and sixty-seven years, King Lucius, with all the chiefs of the British people received baptism, a legation having been sent by the emperors of Rome and by Evaristus, the Roman Pope. Lucius was called Leuer Maur, that is, of Great Splendor, on account of the faith which came in his time." William of Malmsbury adds that the Roman missionaries Phagan and Deruvan came to Glastonbury. At Coire, the story goes that Lucius having laid aside crown and scepter, attended by his sister, crossed Gaul, passed through Augsburg, and came to the Alpine valley of the Grisons, and became the apostle of the Rhaetian Alps. The pagans cast him into a hot spring, but he emerged unhurt, and with his sister retreated to a cave. She was seized by the pagans and burned to death at Trimus, while Lucius lost his life in the castle of Martiola.]

Trogus Pompeius, a Spanish historian, gained renown by his history from Belus, the father of Ninus, king of Assyria, to the reign of Julius Caesar, divided into forty-four books. Justin (Justinus), the historian, later abridged these books.[Trogus Pompeius lived in the time of Augustus. He wrote the , a history of the Macedonian monarchy, but due to its many deviations, really a kind of universal history from the rise of the Assyrian monarchy to the conquest of the East by Rome. The original work of Trogus, which was one of great value, is lost. The work of Justin is merely a selection of such parts as were worthy of being generally known.]

Dionysius, a bishop of Corinth, as Eusebius writes, lived in the time of Soter (Sotheris) and was a man of such eloquence and versatility that he not only taught the people of his own state and province, but also the bishops of other cities and places by his letters and epistles. Having been instructed in the teachings of the Apostle Paul, he became bishop of Corinth, and in that capacity found it easy to maintain others in office and to teach them by his writings. Of these writings he sent six for use at as many different places. Many other highly learned men lived at this time.[]

Theodotion (Theodocion), born in Asia from the country of Ephesus, was a highly learned man and well versed in the Scriptures. This third translator of the Holy Scriptures lived in these times, together with the men already mentioned. In addition to his interpretation and translation he left many other writings in praise of the Christian religion. He was a disciple of Tatian before the latter fell into heresy. By means of his numerous writings he ingeniously ridiculed Apelles the heretic, because Apelles said that he did not know the God whom Theodotion worshipped. Apelles said that Christ was not in truth the Son of God, but an imaginary being.[For Apelles, see Folio CXIIIIv and note ad loc.]

Clement, a priest of Alexandria, and an ingenious and highly informed man, as Jerome writes, also flourished with the above-mentioned persons. He wrote many and various books as well as letters. Origen was his disciple.[Saint Clement of Alexandria, born Titus Flavius Clemens (c. 150 - 211/216), was one of the early Church Fathers and perhaps the most distinguished teacher of his age. His numerous writings, widely quoted in the Middle Ages, attempted to unite Greek philosophical traditions with Christian doctrine. Steeped in pagan literature, his ideological view of Christianity was one part Plato and two parts Bible. His student Origen succeeded him as head of the school of Christian education at Alexandria. See also Eusebius, 5.11, 6.6, and 6.13-14.]

Apollonius, a Roman senator and highly educated man, suffered martyrdom in the time of Pope Eleutherius, when the churches were at peace. He preached a fine sermon in praise of the Christian faith, although this was forbidden on pain of death. He presented to the Emperor Commodus an excellent work that the emperor caused to be read at a session of the senate. Afterwards he was betrayed as a Christian by one of his own servants, and was beheaded on the 18th day April. After his death many heresies gained the ascendancy, etc.

Tertullian of Carthage, son of a centurion and proconsul, and celebrated for his learning and intelligence flourished at this time, as Jerome writes. In middle life he was the most renowned of the clergy at Rome. However, through jealousy he was so harassed with slanders and threats that he felt compelled to join the heretic Montanus; and in consequence he wrote many books against the Christian faith. He lived to a declining old age.[Q. Septimus Florens Tertullian, most ancient of the Latin fathers. Notwithstanding the celebrity he has always enjoyed, our knowledge of his personal history is very limited, being derived almost exclusively from a succinct notice of Jerome. From this we learn he was a native of Carthage, son of a proconsular centurion (an officer who acted as a sort of aide-de-camp to provincial governors); that he flourished chiefly during the reigns of Septimus Severus and Caracalla; that he became a Presbyter, and remained orthodox to middle life, when in consequence of the envy and ill-treatment which he experienced on the part of the Roman clergy, he went over to the Montanists and wrote several books in defense of those heretics; that he lived to a great age and was the author of many works. He was born c. 160, and died c. 240. The most interesting of his numerous works is his , a defense of Christianity. His writings show him a man of varied learning; but his style is rough, abrupt, and obscure, abounding in far-fetched metaphors and extravagant hyperboles.]


Lucius and Emerita, his sister, are represented by a dual portrait, specially designed for this purpose. Bede (Historica Ecclesiastica, I, 4) states that in 156 CE, in the reign of the Roman emperors Aurelius and Verus, and in the pontificate of Pope Eleutherius, Lucius, a British king, sent a letter to the Pope praying for his assistance that he might be made a Christian; and having obtained this favor, was, together with his people, instructed in the Christian faith. To this tale the credulity of later ages has added many particulars. Ciraldus Cambrensis makes Lucius king of the Britons, and the missionaries from Rome effect the conversion of the whole population of the island. Geoffrey of Monmouth makes Lucius the son of Coilus, the son of Marius, the son of Arviragus, and agrees with Ciraldus about the conversion. Some other traditions and legends of the Middle Ages made Lucius resign his crown, travel as a missionary, with his sister St. Emerita, through Rhaetia and Vindelicia, and suffer martyrdom near Curia or Chur. The history and even the existence of Lucius are doubted by some critics. A letter is extant, professing to be from Pope Eleutherius "to Lucius, king of Britain," but it is doubtless spurious. In the woodcut Lucius appears in regal robes, and sainted. Across his right shoulder he carries three scepters, no doubt emblematical of his triune sovereignty. With his right hand he poises a shield, inscribed with his coat of arms. Here the British lion is absent, and we see only a rampant unicorn—at least a unicorn by inference. According to fable this beast has the head and body of a horse, the hind legs of an antelope, the tail of a lion (or sometimes that of a horse), sometimes the beard of a goat, and, as its chief feature, a long, sharp, twisted horn, similar to the narwhal’s tusk, set in the middle of the forehead and projected forward. Hence the Latin unicornus, ‘single-horned.’ The medieval conception of the unicorn possessing great strength and fierceness is perhaps due to the fact that in certain passages of the Old Testament (Num. 23:22, Deut. 33:17, Job 39:9-10) the Hebrew word r’em, now translated in the Revised Version "wild ox," was translated unicornus, or rhinoceros, and in the Authorized Version "unicorn," though in Deut. 33:17 it obviously refers to a two-horned animal. Isidore 12:2, 12, tells how the unicorn has been known to defeat the elephant in combat. According to ancient tradition "The horn that is between the eyes signifies that he is the supreme king."

In heraldry the unicorn was sometimes used as a device, but oftener as a supporter, and subsists to the present day as the left hand supporter of the British royal arms. This position it assumed at the Union, the Scottish royal arms having been supported by two unicorns. In the woodcut before us the artist has depicted either a goat or the two-horned animal of Deuteronomy. But I fear we must call it a goat. Note the two horns, bent back over the neck—not the straight spiral single-horn of the fabulous animal, proceeding forward from a point between the eyes.

Emerita, sister of Lucius, is portrayed as a queen, crowned and sainted. In symbolism of her martyrdom she carries a flaming torch.