First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Timothy (Timotheus), a disciple of Paul, the apostle, was a bishop at Ephesus. He was the son of a pagan father and of widowed mother, a woman of religious faith. He was called by Paul, and after suffering many dangers, received the martyr’s crown. However, some say he suffered under Nero, and that two angels appeared to him during his martyrdom, saying, Lift your head to heaven and see. And he saw heaven open—and Jesus holding a costly crown. Jesus said, This crown you will receive by my hand. This was also seen by a man named Appollinaris, who permitted himself to be baptized; immediately after which the judge caused them both to be beheaded.[Timothy was a disciple and companion of Paul. He was a native of Lystra, or perhaps Derbe, both cities of Lycaonia. His father was a Greek, and his mother a Jew. The instructions and prayers of his pious mother, Eunice, and grandmother Lois, and the preachings of Paul during his first visit to Lystra in 48 CE (Acts 14:6) brought about his conversion and his introduction into the ministry. He had witnessed the sufferings of Paul and loved him as his father in Christ (I Tim.1:2; II Tim. 3.10). When the apostle returned to Lystra, about 51 CE, the brethren spoke highly of the merit and good disposition of Timothy, and the apostle determined to take him along with him, for which purpose he circumcised him at Lystra, to disarm the prejudices of the Jews; and he was set apart to the ministry by the laying on of the hands of the elders (I Tim. 4:14; II Tim. 1:6; 4:5). Timothy applied himself to promoting Christianity, and rendered Paul very important service through the whole course of his preaching. He was selected by Paul as his chosen companion and labored zealously. For a time he shared Paul’s imprisonment at Rome. The last mention of him is in Paul’s request that he go to Rome with him during his second imprisonment.]

Titus, also a disciple of Paul and a bishop of the Cretans, after faithful service as a preacher, came to a blessed end; and he received an epistle from Paul out of the city of Nicopolis.[Titus, a distinguished Christian of Greek origin, was converted by the preaching of Paul, whose fellow-laborer he became. He joined Paul and Barnabus in the mission from Antioch to Jerusalem, and was subsequently sent to Corinth, where he labored with success. Paul afterward left him at Crete to establish and regulate the churches of that island. There he received the Epistle to Titus, then at Ephesus, inviting him to Nicopolis; from there he went to Dalmatia before Paul was finally imprisoned at Rome. He labored for many years at Crete and died there at an advanced age. ] Crescens (Crescentius) was another disciple of Paul, and by his preaching converted many people to the Christian faith in Galatia.[Crescens (Crescentius), assistant to Paul, probably one of the 70 disciples. He was said to have exercised his ministry in Galatia (II Tim. 4:10).]

Dionysius the Areopagite, a highly renowned philosopher, together with Eleutherius the priest, and Rusticus the Deacon, was martyred at Paris in the persecution by Domitian. For when Pope Clement at the request of Peter, sent him to preach to the Gauls, and he performed the required work of the Lord with zeal, he and his associate, now ninety years of age, were flogged, spit upon, ridiculed, stretched naked upon a grill over the fire, tortured by other means, and finally beheaded in a kneeling posture. Thereafter he carried his head in his arms with the guidance of angels to the place where he finally rested. This is the Dionysius who at Athens spoke of the passion of the Lord Jesus: Either the God of nature suffers, or the whole structure of the world will be ruined. And him also, Paul the apostle afterward baptized, industriously instructed, and ordained as bishop at Athens, where he brought many persons to the Christian faith; as also in Gaul. On the ninth day of October he suffered martyrdom. Being a highly learned man, he left many excellent and enlightening writings. And as he states in one of his books, he was one of the witnesses to the demise of Mary, the mother of God. And when he there after heard that Peter and Paul, the apostles, were taken by Nero, he went there himself to see them. And thereupon he was ordained (as aforesaid) by Pope Clement.[Dionysius, surnamed ‘The Areopagite’ (Areopagita), because he was one of the Council of the Areopagus, was converted by Paul’s preachings at Athens. There are extant several works under his name, which, however, could scarcely have been written before the fifth century of our era. This Dionysius was later confused with another of the same name, also known as Denis, the patron saint of France.]

Victorinus, esteemed for his piety and miracles, and a worthy bishop of the city of Emiterna, was taken as a Christian from the city and led to the Emperor Nerva, and by his order he was hanged with his head downward in a region where stinking and sulphurous water flowed. And after he had endured such martyrdom in the name of Jesus for three days, then, so crowned (with martyrdom) he gave up his Spirit to Christ on the 5th day of the month of September. Eutyches (Eutices) and Marcus were also martyred under the Emperor Nerva; for when Aurelian saw that Domitilla, his betrothed, loved these pious men more for their faith and virtue, and Nereus and Achilleus[Nereus and Achilleus are two saints peculiar to Rome. They were the chamberlains of Flavia Domitilla, grandniece of the Emperor Domitian, and daughter of Flavius Clemens and the elder Domitilla, both of whom had suffered martyrdom for adhering to the Christian faith. Flavia Domitilla was betrothed to Aurelian, son of the consul; but her two chamberlains, zealous Christians, prevailed upon her to refuse this union with an idolater; for which cause they were beheaded, and Domitilla was at the same time put to death at Terracina.] were about then also martyred, he assigned these holy men, with the permission of Nerva, as slaves to do the ploughing on his estates. But as they were looked upon with favor by all and worked miracles, they too were finally slain on the 16th day of May.[Saints Victorinus, Maro (here called Marcus) and Eutyches lived in Italy at the end of the first century. For their faith they and Flavia Domitilla were exiled to the island of Ponza. They were afterward released by the Emperor Nerva. However, in the persecution by Trajan they suffered on various days, in various ways, and in different places.]

John (Iohannes), the apostle and evangelist, brother of James (Iacobi) the Greater, and the most beloved of Jesus Christ, was called as a disciple in his younger years. They say this pious man lived until the time of Trajan the Emperor. After establishing the Asiatic church he wrote his gospel, being the last; and he confirmed what Matthew, Mark and Luke had written. And, as they say, he nullified the teachings of the Edionite heretics who falsely claimed that Christ did not exist before Mary. For John announced his godly nature, saying: In the beginning was the Word, etc. He also wrote many other things, namely, the Book of Revelation when exiled to the Island of Patmos by Domitian. After the latter’s death and the nullification of his decrees, John returned to Ephesus. Up to the time of Trajan he sustained churches there with his counsel and writings. Burdened with years, he rested in the sixty-eighth year after Christ suffered. Then at ninety years he went to church early one Sunday morning and preached to the people; and he climbed into a square crypt that he had caused to be made in the church. And a great light appeared so he could not be seen. When the light disappeared his body was gone, but the crypt was filled with heavenly bread (manna).[John, apostle, and son of Zebedee, was a native of Galilee. Zebedee and his sons, John and James, were fishermen, apparently fairly well off. John and Peter followed Jesus, and were seized by the Jews when the other disciples fled. He was early at the tomb of the Jesus, and after his ascension boldly proclaimed the gospel at Jerusalem (Acts 4:13), though scourged, imprisoned and threatened with death. He is supposed to have been the youngest of the apostles. Jesus is said to have had a particular affection for him and, while on the cross, according to John’s gospel, he committed his mother, Mary, to John’s care. Legend relates that about 95 CE he was banished to the Island of Patmos where he had the visions described in the Apocalypse. He afterward returned to Ephesus where he lived to a very old age. The Gospel of John, the Apocalypse, and the three Epistles that bear his name, are by at least two different authors, neither of which is likely to be the John who was the disciple of Jesus (all five of these texts were written at the end of the 1st century). And only the author of the Apocalypse (whose prose is very different from the other four texts) tells us his name (John).]


Dionysius is depicted with his decapitated head that rests on a book he holds in both hands. The head on the book symbolizes that he sacrificed his own head for the Church of Christ. The head is mitred and surrounded by a nimbus. Sometimes the nimbus is placed not about the head, but about the place where the head originally was. St. Denis, patron saint of France, is usually thus depicted.


St. John, the apostle and evangelist, is seated in the open country. His left hand firmly grips an inkpot, while with his right he is writing in a book on his lap, probably his Gospel. At his left an eagle, his symbol, is about to take flight. In the sky John sees a vision of Mary and the Child. John is depicted as young, beardless, and with flowing locks. He has a nimbus, the eagle none. This is the same John who is depicted at Folio CVIII verso, undergoing martyrdom.