First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 5294

Year of Christ 94

Clement, a Roman by birth, lived in the time of the Emperor Domitian (Domiciani), and occupied the papal chair after Pope Cletus, for 9 years and 10 days. He was the fourth Pope of Rome after Peter, although others say he was the second. He was a most kind and gentle man, and voluntarily requested that the two popes Linus and Cletus should precede him in the work. However, he was held in esteem for his spiritual learning and virtue; and he wrote several epistles in the name of the church, and ordered that a single bishop should not hold mass without the deacons; nor a layman lay charges against a cleric; and he appointed seven notaries to industriously write the complete history of the martyrs. This Clement daily converted many people to the Christian faith by his spiritual learning and virtue. On that account P. Tarquinius and Mamertinus, the Romans, incited the Emperor Trajan against the Christians. At his command Clement was taken to an island, where he found two thousand Christians hewing marble. And the people there were ill and in need of water, which they had to bring there from a distance of six miles. So Clement was moved by the wants of the people; and he went to a hill not far off, and there he saw a lamb under whose right foot was a miraculous spring giving forth an abundance of water. With this all the people were refreshed and many were converted to the faith. This enraged Trajan and he sent one of his officers, who tied an anchor about his neck and threw him into the sea on the 23rd day of the month of November. Before long his body was washed ashore, and was finally buried, and in that place a spring came up. After death the chair was vacant for 22 days.[Clement I, generally known as Clement of Rome, or Clemens Romanus (fl. c. 96 CE), was one of the "Apostolic Fathers," and in the list of bishops of Rome is given the third or fourth place – Peter, Linus (Anacletus), Clement. He is commemorated on November 23rd. The writings attributed to him are generally given the name Clementine Literature. Eusebius states, "In the twelfth year of the same reign (Domitian’s), after Anencletus (Anacletus) had been bishop of Rome twelve years, he was succeeded by Clement, who, the apostle, in his Epistle to the Philippians, shows, had been his fellow laborer, in these words: ‘With Clement and the rest of my fellow laborers, whose names are in the book of life.’ Of this Clement there is an epistle extant, acknowledged as genuine, of considerable length and of great merit, which he wrote in the name of the church at Rome to that of Corinth, at the time when there was a dissension in the latter. This we know to have been publicly read for common benefit, in most of the churches, both in former times and in our own; and that at the time mentioned a sedition did take place at Corinth, is abundantly attested by Hegesippus." ( 15-16)]

Year of the World 5303

Year of Christ 104

Anacletus was by birth a Greek of Athens, and a successor of Clement in the papacy in the time of Nerva and Trajan. Eusebius foregoes this Anacletus and says he was Cletus, but there is a difference between the dates of birth and death of these two; for Cletus, a Roman, died under Domitian (Domiciano), while Anacletus of Athens died under Trajan. He collected the reminiscences of Peter; and he also assigned certain places for the burial of the martyrs. And once, in the month or December, he consecrated five priests, three deacons, and in various places six bishops. And he decreed that a bishop was not to be consecrated by less than three bishops; but a bad priest by one bishop; and that a bishop should not undertake to consecrate foreign subjects. Finally he was slain under Trajan; and the chair was vacant for 13 days. He sat 9 years, two months and 10 days.[ Anacletus (rarely Anencletus), ranks as the second bishop of Rome. About the fourth century he is treated in the catalogue as two persons – Anacletus and Cletus. According to these same catalogues he occupied the papal chair for twelve years (c. 77-88). Of him Eusebius writes: "After Vespasian had reigned about ten years, he was succeeded by his son Titus, in the second year of whose reign Linus, bishop of the church at Rome, who had held the office about twelve years, transferred it to Anencletus. But Titus was succeeded by Domitian, his brother, after he had reigned two years and as many months." ( 13)]

Evaristus, the pope, by birth a Greek, was born of a Jew named Judas, a native of Bethlehem. He was a just and fall man. He was the first to assign titles to the clergy at Rome. He appointed seven deacons to hold the preaching bishops to the faith. He also ordered that the charges of the people against a bishop should not be recognized. He forbade secret marriages, and decreed that bride and groom should be blessed by a priest. He held three consecrations in December, and consecrated six priests, two deacons, and in various places five bishops. As some say, he was martyred in the last year of Trajan the Emperor; but it is likely that he was martyred under Hadrian (as others say), while that emperor was not yet reconciled to the Christians. For he sat nine years, ten months and two days, and was buried beside the body of St. Peter; and at that time the chair was vacant for 19 days.[Evaristus, fourth pope (c. 98-105) was the immediate successor of Clement I, as bishop of Rome.]

The second persecution of the Christians after Nero was put into effect by the Emperor Domitian (Domicianus) in the 12thyear of his reign. In the course of these persecutions John the apostle and evangelist was brought to Rome by Domitian the Emperor and placed into a kettle of boiling oil, but from which he came out unharmed. Therefore he was sent to the island of Patmos; but after the death of Domitian he was released from exile, and went to Ephesus. Domitilla (Domicilla), a very holy virgin, was in the course of this persecution brought to the island of Pontia, and after enduring much suffering, was, together with Euphrosina, Theodora, and other virgins, burned in her bedchamber by a tyrant. Nicomedus, a Roman priest, Hermocoras, the Aquilaean archbishop, a disciple of Mark, together with Fortunatus, his archdeacon, earned the crown of martyrdom in this persecution. And so Cletus and Anacletus, the popes, and also many others suffered.[ According to Eusebius, Domitian having exercised his cruelty against many, at length established himself as the successor of Nero in his hatred and hostility to God. "He was the second that raised a persecution against us, although his father Vespasian had attempted nothing to our prejudice." According to tradition, the apostle and evangelist John, who was yet living, in consequence of his testimony to the divine word, was condemned to dwell on the island of Patmos. At the same time, for professing Christ, Flavia Domitilla, the niece of Flavius Clemens, one of the consuls of Rome at that time, was transported with many others by way of punishment, to the island of Pontia. ( 17-18)]


In the foreground are two caldrons of oil, each upon a fire. The martyr kneels in one, in prayer. The executioner is pouring the heated oil over the victim. According to legend this was the evangelist’s fate as decreed by Domitian. It is said to have taken place outside the Latin gate at Rome. In Dürer’s famous woodcut John sits in the boiling oil, while one executioner blows the fire and the other pours the oil over John’s head. According to Greek legend John died without pain or change, and immediately rose again in bodily form, and ascended into heaven.