First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Adolph, count of Nassau, was a strong man, whom the German electors unanimously elected Roman king upon the death of Emperor Rudolf; and he reigned for six years. He was an able man, but not very powerful in people and money. After accepting the sovereignty, and before securing the imperial crown from the pope, he collected an army in the Year of the Lord 1292 and proceeded against Meissen. King Wenceslaus of Bohemia came forth to meet him at Grünheim. There they intermarried their children; and the emperor added the margraviate of Meissen to the Roman Empire. But when he finally demanded homage and obedience from the ruling house, he encountered marked opposition from Duke Albert of Austria, who had the cooperation and support of several electors. Therefore Adolph made war against Albert, but on account of the small number of his men, Adolph was defeated and slain between Spire and Worms on the day of Saints Processus and Martinian.[Adolph of Nassau (c. 1255-1298), German king, son of Walram, count of Nassau, was chosen to succeed Rudolf I by an election due more to the political conditions of the time than to his personal qualities. His position was unstable, and the allegiance of many of the princes, among them Albert I, duke of Austria, son of the late King Rudolf, was merely nominal. He claimed Meissen as a vacant fief of the empire, and, in 1294, allied himself with Edward I, King of England, against France. Edward granted him a subsidy, but Adolph turned his arms against Thüringia which he had purchased form the landgrave, Albert II. This bargain was resisted by the sons of Albert, and, from 1294 to 1296, Adolph was campaigning in Meissen and Thüringia. He had been unable to fulfill the promises made at his election and the princes grew suspicious. Wenceslaus II, king of Bohemia, fell away from his allegiance, and Adolph was deposed in 1298, when Albert of Austria was elected his successor. In the same year, Adolph was killed in the battle of Goellheim by, it is said, the hand of Albert.]


Tripoli, a renowned city in Asia, was brought under the dominion of the Babylonian sultan by siege, and force of arms in the second year of the pontificate of Pope Nicholas the Fourth. After the slaughter of many people and the manifold plunder of countless treasures of incalculable worth, as well as other property and possessions found there, the city was ravaged with fire and its buildings were destroyed. In the third year of said pope the same sultan by the same cruel means captured the cities of Tyre, Sidon and Berytus[Modern Beirut, chief seaport of Syria, situated on a triangular promontory backed by the Lebanon range. The bay thus formed to the north is known as St. George’s bay, for it is here, according to legend, that he slew the dragon.], together with their fortifications, markets and castles; and, as in the case of Tripoli, ravaged them with fire. The Christian princes of the west did not go to Asia to avenge the calamity thus visited upon the Christians by fire and sword, and the sultan made a treaty with the city of Ptolemais, providing for a peace of two years. Pope Nicholas, however, at the expense of the church, sent five hundred horsemen, who were followed by a large army, without any particular leader, thus involving great risk. They proceeded to Ptolemais. Now there were formerly in this city a countless number of inhabitants; so the expeditionary forces indulged in murder, robbery and incendiarism in the regions of the sultan for some time. The sultan patiently endured this for a long while, but after it had continued for a year, he sent his son with one hundred fifty thousand soldiers to Ptolemais and heavily besieged the city. In the meantime his father died, and the army elected him to succeed his father. Those in the city concluded to leave with their wives and children, the sick, and all their household effects, and to hold the city with twelve thousand warriors. But the new sultan took the city by force, killed all persons found in it, and cruelly damaged the city with fire, and destroyed its fortifications and walls. This occurred in the Year of Salvation twelve hundred ninety.[Two projects of crusades were started before the final expulsion of the Latins from Syria. In 1274, at the Council of Lyon, Gregory X preached the crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes. Gregory was successful in uniting the eastern and western churches for the moment, and in securing for the new crusade the aid of the Palaeologi, now thoroughly alarmed by the plans of Charles of Anjou. Thus was a new papal crusade begun, backed by an alliance with the Constantinople. In 1276, Gregory died, and his plans with him; there was to be no union of East and West in a common crusade. Charles was able to resume his plans. In 1277, Mary of Antioch ceded her claims to him, and he was able to establish himself in Acre; in 1278, he took possession of the principality of Achaea. With these bases, he prepared a new crusade, to be directed against Constantinople. But the Sicilian vespers, followed by the coronation of Peter of Aragon as Sicilian king, occupied the rest of his days. This was the last serious attempt to recover the dying kingdom of Jerusalem. The fall of the great power of Charles of Anjou set free Kala’un, the successor of Bibars’ son, to complete the work of the great sultan. In 1289, Kala’un took Tripoli, and the country of Tripoli was extinguished; in 1290 he died while preparing to besiege Acre, which was captured after a brave defense by his son and successor Khalil in 1291. Thus, the kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end.]

The Order of The Celestines, so called after the aforesaid Pope Celestine, its founder, began at this time under the rule of Saint Benedict, and it prospered marvelously; for after this most holy man’s death in prison, many noble and highly educated men, scorning the pomp and wealth of the world, entered this order in view of this pope’s numerous miracles; and soon the order grow in membership and the number of its cloisters.[Celestine, a religious order founded about 1260 by Peter of Morrone, afterwards Pope Celestine V (1294). It was an attempt to unite the eremitical and cenobitical modes of life. It followed the Benedictine rule supplemented by increased austerities. The form of government was borrowed largely from those prevailing in the Mendicant Orders. But even though the Celestines are reckoned as a branch of the Benedictines, there is little in common between them. During the founder’s life, the order spread rapidly, and eventually there were about 150 monasteries in Italy, and others in France, Bohemia, and the Netherlands. The French houses formed a separate congregation, the head-house being in Paris. The French Revolution and those of the nineteenth century destroyed their houses, and the Celestine Order seems no longer to exist.]


The Order of The Servants of The Virgin Mary was founded by Philip, a very religious man. He died not far from Florence. He established this order under the rule of Saint Augustine, and by word and example he gave it form, making certain additions. This order was afterward confirmed by three popes—Benedict the Eleventh, Boniface, and Urban the Sixth, and is reckoned as a Mendicant Order.[The Servites or “Servants of Mary,” an order under the rule of St. Augustine, was founded in 1233 by seven merchants of Florence, recently canonized as “the seven holy Founders,” who gave up their wealth and position, and, with the bishop’s sanction, established themselves as a religious community on Monte Senario, near Florence. They lived an austere life of penance and prayer, and being joined by others, they were, in 1240, formed into an order following the Augustinian rule supplemented by constitutions borrowed from the Dominicans. They established houses in Italy, France, Germany and Spain. The order received papal approbation in 1255; in 1424 it was recognized as a Mendicant order, and, in 1567, it was ranked with the four great orders of Mendicant friars.]