First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the Lord 1273

Rudolf, count of Hapsburg, was elected Roman emperor by the common and unanimous choice of the electors, after the long interregnum of the Roman sovereignty and the destruction of the estates of the Roman Empire. He was elected upon condition, as stated previously, that he proceed to Rome the following year to receive the imperial crown, and was authorized by Pope Gregory to rescue the Holy Land. He was an intelligent, prudent, and ingenious man, strict in his dealings, earnest in warfare and defense, just and God-fearing, invulnerable in the excellence of his reputation, strong of body, of handsome countenance, wise counsel, magnanimous, and very generous. In consideration of such commendable ability and characteristics, he became emperor; and he reigned for 19 years, transacting the business of the German nation and of the country with care and industry. Rudolf had been the major-domo of Ottakar, the king of Bohemia; but when he was chosen defender of the common Christian welfare, he demanded through his imperial emissaries that Ottakar deliver up to him Austria, Kernten, and other places bordering on Italy, as possessions of the Roman Empire. When Duke Frederick of Austria died without bodily issue, his sister Margaret inherited that country. She married Ottakar, to whom the Austrian principality consequently reverted. Ulrich, who possessed the principality of Kernten, also was without issue of his body; for this reason he sold to Ottakar, Kernten, Krain, and the Wendic March, and other lands. But since Austria was no longer a female fief, and Ulric held the aforesaid lands without the authority or consent of the Roman emperor, and consequently had no authority to sell them, Emperor Rudolf asked Ottakar to surrender the same. This the Bohemian king Ottakar refused to do; nevertheless they were united through subjugation, and Austria became subject to the emperor. On both sides they intermarried their children with one another, and thus the non-assenting lands became espoused estates. Although the Bohemian king took an oath to observe these things, he was so influenced by the words of his wife that he collected a large army against the emperor. The emperor engaged the king in a great battle and killed him. Finally Rudolf died at Erfurt, of weakness and age. However, before his death, his daughter Gutta, together with her husband Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia and son of Ottakar, came to him at Erfurt. He was removed to Spire and buried with the Roman emperors in the Year of the Lord 1291 in the 22nd day of July.

Rudolf I (1218-1291), German king, son of Albert IV, count of Hapsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich, count of Kyburg, was born at Limburg on May 1st, 1218. At his father’s death in 1239, Rudolf inherited the family estates in Alsace, and, in 1245, married Gertrude, daughter of Burkhard III, count of Hohenberg. A partisan of the emperor Frederick II and his son, Conrad IV, he was richly rewarded by them, but, in 1254, was excommunicated by Innocent IV. In the general disorder after the fall of the Hohenstaufen, he increased his estates largely at the expense of his uncle, Hartmann of Kyburg, and the bishops of Strasbourg and Basle, becoming the most powerful prince in south-western Germany. His election as German king at Frankfurt (September 29th, 1273) was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, Frederick II, of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg. The support of Albert, duke of Sax-Lauenburg, and of Louis II, count palatine of the Rhine and duke of upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolf’s daughters; so that Ottakar II, king of Bohemia, a candidate of the throne, was almost alone in his opposition. Rudolf was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on October 24th, 1273. To win the approbation of the pope, Rudolf renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory and Sicily, and promised to land a new crusade; and Pope Gregory X, in spite of Ottakar’s protests, not only recognized Rudolf himself, but persuaded Alphonso X, king of Castile, who had been chosen German king in 1257, to do the same. From 1274-78, Rudolf was engaged in an intermittent struggle with Ottakar, which ended with the latter’s death. Rudolf then set about consolidating his authority in Austria and the adjacent countries, where he met much opposition. At length, in December 1282 Rudolf invested his sons, Albert and Rudolf, with the duchies of Austria and Styria at Augsburg, and so laid the foundations of the greatness of the house of Hapsburg.

In 1281, Rudolf compelled Philip I, count of upper Burgundy to cede some districts to him, forced the citizens of Berne to pay tribute, and in 1289 marched against Philip’s successor, Otto IV, and compelled him to do homage. He was much less successful, however, in maintaining order in Germany, although in 1289 he led an expedition into Thüringia and destroyed some robber castles. In 1281, his first wife died, and on February 5th, 1284 he married Isabella, daughter of Hugh IV, duke of Burgundy. In 1291, he attempted to secure the election of his son, Albert, as German king, but without success. Rudolf died at Spire in 1291 and was buried in the cathedral there.

Conradin, grandson of Emperor Frederick the Swabian, born of his son Conrad, at the request of the Ghibellines, proceeded against the Guelphs with a large powerful army of Germans, and arrived at Verona. Afterwards he went to Pavia, and from there passed through Cararra as far as the gulf of Genoa. He then collected a large army of Ghibellines from Lombardy and Romandiola and at Arezzo and slew King Charles’s Sicilian marshall. After this Conradin and the Duke of Austria, both still young, engaged in battle with Charles. From this battle they fled, but after the expiration of eight days they were spied out, brought before Charles, condemned to death by the sword, and slain. With the death of Conradin the duchy of Swabia came to an end, together with his shield and helmet. The duke of Swabia had gloriously ruled over the Roman Empire until the year 1250.[ Conradin (1252-1268), king of Jerusalem and Sicily, son of the German king Conrad IV, was born in Bavaria in 1252. Although he had been entrusted by his father to the guardianship of the Church, Pope Innocent IV sought to bestow the kingdom of Sicily on a foreign prince. Innocent’s successor, Alexander IV, continued this policy, offered the Hohenstaufen lands in Germany to Alphonso X, king of Castile, and forbade Conradin’s election as king of the Romans. Having assumed the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the Duchy of Swabia in 1262. Conradin’s first invitation to Italy came from the Guelphs of Florence, by whom he was asked to take arms against Manfred, who had been crowned king of Sicily in 1258. This invitation was refused, but, after Manfred’s fall in 1266, envoys came again to Bavaria. Conradin crossed the Alps and issued a manifesto at Verona setting forth his claim on Sicily. His partisans both in the north and south of Italy took up arms; his envoy was received with enthusiasm at Rome; and the young king himself was welcomed at Pavia and Pisa. In November 1267, he was excommunicated, but his fleet was victorious over that of Charles, duke of Anjou, who had taken possession of Sicily on Manfred’s death; and in July 1268, he was himself greeted with great enthusiasm at Rome. In August 1268 he unsuccessfully encountered the troops of Charles of Tagliacozzo. He was seized at Astura and handed over to Charles. Tried as a traitor, he was beheaded with his friend, Frederick of Baden, titular duke of Austria. With his death, the Hohenstaufen race became extinct.]

At this time Henry (Heinricus), younger son of King Richard, duke of Cornwall, went to the pope concerning his paternal kingdom; and Guido, count of Montfort, also still a youth, together with King Philip of France, went there as well. And it so happened that on a certain day they met in the church of Saint Lawrence at Viterbo. But when Guido was informed of the presence of said Henry there, and learned that he was the son of King Richard, by whom Simon, his father, was treacherously slain in England, he came upon him and stabbed him there in violation of the sanctity of the aforesaid church.

Hedwig (Hegwidis), a duchess of Poland, a widow of marvelous sanctity, by her father a margravine of Bada, and by her mother an Eastern margravine and countess of Rochlitz, was sent to Kitzingen for education. She was espoused to Duke Henry (Heinrico) of Silesia, and bore three sons and as many daughters. The oldest was slain in a battle with the infidels. She erected a noble cloister to the Cistercian Order at Trebnitz, not far from Breslau; and in it she established her daughter Gertrude as abbess over one hundred virgins. Upon the death of her husband she lived a pious life there. Upon her death she was enrolled among the number of the saints because of her manifold miracles.

Hedwig. Berthold XI, Count of Andechs, Marquis of Istria, duke of Dalmatia and Meran, by his wife Agnes of Rochlitz, had four sons, Egbert, bishop of Bamberg; Berthold, patriarch of Aquileia; Henry, who succeeded to the marquisate of Istria; Otto, who inherited the duchy of Meran; and three daughters: Hedwig, Agnes and Gertrude.

Hedwig was born in 1174, educated at Kitzingen, and espoused, at the age of twelve, to Henry I, duke of Silesia. She became the mother of three sons and a like number of daughters. In 1238, being now a widow, she retreated to the Cistercian convent of Trednitz, near Breslau, which she herself had founded and richly furnished. Depressed by the misfortunes of her kin, she died in 1243, was canonized in 1268, and is regarded as the patroness of Silesia.


Hedwig is portrayed as a nun. In her left hand she holds a model of the convent she founded at Trednitz, near Breslau; in her right hand, an image of the Virgin and Child. The portrait is not in accord with the traditional portrayal. She is usually represented as a Cistercian nun, with crown and mantle; also as barefooted and carrying her shoes in her hand, as was her custom.