First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Pope Urban the Fourth, a native of France, and patriarch of Jerusalem, was elected pope after Alexander. Although he was born of a low humble family, yet he was a distinguished, extraordinary and eloquent man. When once upon a time he heard a slur to the effect that he was born of a mean, ignoble father, he answered: It is not the corporal birth but a virtuous life that makes a man noble. This pope instituted the festival of Corpus Christi, making it a day of great indulgence[The Feast of Corpus Christi is a Roman Catholic festival, instituted by Pope Urban IV in 1264, and observed on the Thursday of the week after Pentecost. The institution was the natural result of the acceptance of the doctrine of transubstantiation. It was not made an article of faith until the time of Innocent III. By the institution of Corpus Christi Day, this doctrine was expressed in liturgical form, and its popularity was secured. Roman legend states that, in 1230, Juliana, a nun of Liege, while looking at the full moon, saw a gap in its orb; and by a peculiar revelation form heaven, learned that the moon represented the Christian Church, and the gap, the want of a certain festival – that of the adoration of the body of Christ in the consecrated host – which she was to begin to celebrate, and announce to the world. In 1264, while a priest at Bolsena, who did not believe in the change of the bread into body of Christ, was going through the ceremony of the benediction, drops of blood feel on his surplice, and when he endeavored to conceal them in the folds of his garment, formed bloody images of the host. The bloody surplice is still seen as a relic at Civita Vecchia. It was in this year that Pope Urban published his bull, and it is upon such a tradition that the holiday was instituted.]. This Urban resolved to bring the churches greater wealth. He allowed those marked with the cross to proceed on their way, and exhorted Count Charles (Carolus) of France, King Louis’ (Ludovici) uncle and son-in-law, to concern themselves with the protection of the Church; and in this matter Charles agreed to please the pope and the king. But, when he was told of the pope’s death, it was surmised that he would not proceed with his undertaking. The pope died at Perugia in the third year, first month, and fourth day of his pontificate, and he was buried there in the episcopal basilica. The seat was then vacant for five months. This Urban was partial to the mendicant orders, favoring and promoting them by his good will, assistance, and the grant of privileges.[Urban IV (Jacques Pantelon), pope from 1261 to 1264, was the son of a shoemaker of Troyes. Having received a monastic education, he became arch-deacon of Liege and papal legate of Innocent IV to Poland and Prussia. He was consecrated bishop of Verdun in 1253, and two years later was translated to the patriarchate of Jerusalem. He was on a visit to Italy when elected to succeed Alexander IV, and spent most of his pontificate at Orvieto. Under him began the preponderance of the French in the curia, which later led to the papal residence at Avignon, and indirectly to the Great Schism. In 1264, he instituted the festival of Corpus Christi. He favored the claim of Charles of Anjou to the crown of the Two Sicilies. He died on the arrival of Charles of Anjou, and was succeeded by Clement IV.]

Pope Clement the Fourth, previously called Guido Fulcodi, of Narbonne, was by reason of his piety and learning, deservedly elected pope. He was the foremost and most distinguished jurist in all France, and the best counselor at the royal court. He had a wife and children, but after his wife’s death he was appointed bishop of Podiensis; then archbishop of Narbonne; subsequently he was made a cardinal, and was finally elected pope. Being a cardinal of great reputation and worldly experience, the pope dispatched him as a legate to arbitrate and settle the misunderstandings between King Henry (Heinricum) of England and Simon (Symonem), Count of Montfort. In the meantime Urban died, and this Clement was elected pope in his stead, making it necessary for him to return home. There was a great urgency for his return; but on the way Clement feared Manfred, the deposed king of Italy; for this reason he proceeded by land in the habit of a mendicant. When he reached Paris the cardinals took him to Viterbo. There, together with the cardinals, he considered the matter of enlisting Charles (Caroli). Not long afterwards Charles sailed out of Marseilles to the Tiber and from there to Rome. Clement used prudence and discretion in the conduct of the papal office, and employed the wealth of the church in alms and divine works, rather than bestowing it upon his friends and relatives. Before he became pope his wife died, leaving him two daughters. One of these he put into a convent, with 30 small Tours (Thuronesium) pounds[The ‘Tours pound’ (in French, livre tournois) was one of several currencies used in France in the Middle Ages.]. The other he espoused with three hundred Tours pounds as a marriage portion, upon condition that she ask nothing more of him. He had a kinsman who held three offices, and him he compelled to choose one and give up the other two. And when this kinsman asked for a greater office the pope told him to live for the Lord God, and not according to his lay desires. He died afterwards at Viterbo in blessedness after having been in office 3 years and nine months; and the seat rested two years on account of dissension among the cardinals.[Clement IV (Gui Foulques), pope from 1265 to 1268, son of a lawyer, became a valued legal adviser of Louis IX of France, and after the death of his wife, took orders. In 1258, he was made bishop of LePuy; in 1259, Archbishop of Narbonne, and, in 1261, cardinal-bishop of Sabina. He was elected pope at Perugia in 1265. He invested the avaricious Charles of Anjou with the kingdom of Sicily, but subsequently came into conflict with him after the death of Manfred in 1266. When Conradin, last of the Hohenstaufen, appeared in Italy, Clement excommunicated him and his supporters. Clement died at Viterbo in 1268.]

Bernard of Compostela, a very highly informed priest and doctor of both branches of the law, attendant and chaplain of the aforesaid Pope Innocent, was by the example and zeal of the same pope moved to write various elegant manuscripts on jurisprudence and other subjects, which he left behind.[]

In the Year of the Lord 1263 a remarkably large comet appeared for over three months, proceeding from the East to the center of the heavens, and directing its beams toward the west. On the night of Urban’s death it ceased to appear.