First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Andrew (Andreas), a brother and associate of Simon (Symonis) Peter in suffering on the cross, was at first a disciple of John the Baptist, and later a follower of Jesus. Pointing to him, John said, Behold the Lamb of God. After the descent of the Holy Spirit, and while Vespasian still reigned, and after Andrew had preached the Gospel to the Scythians, he traveled in Achaia, a region of Greece. And there he converted many people to the faith, particularly Maximilla, the wife of Aegeus. After a lengthy disputation concerning the faith, Aegeus (Egee) imprisoned him at Patras in Achaia. Later he was severely beaten by twenty youths of the court, and finally was tied to a cross with cords. And when the people murmured against Aegeus, the proconsul, Andrew earnestly urged them not to prevent his martyrdom, for Jesus, his Master, had also shown patience while suffering. When Andrew beheld the cross, he saluted it, saying, "Hail, precious Cross, that has been consecrated by the body of my Lord, and adorned with his limbs as with rich jewels." He lived on the cross for two days. Finally a glory appeared about him, and he fulfilled his martyrdom on the last day of November. Maximilla took his body and interred it with aromatic herbs. In the twenty-first year of the reign of Constantius, the emperor, the remains of Andrew, together with those of St. Luke, were taken from the aforesaid city to Constantinople. Afterwards Pope Pius II brought the head of Andrew from the Peloponnesus to Rome, placing it in St. Peter’s Church.[Andrew, brother of Simon Peter, was the first to be called to the apostleship. The Bible says little about him. Legendary history tells us that after Jesus’ ascension he traveled in Scythia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, everywhere converting multitudes. The Russians believed that he was the first to preach to the Muscovites in Sarmatia, and from there he has been honored as titular saint of Russia. After many sufferings he returned to Jerusalem, and from there traveled in Greece, coming to Patras, a city of Achaia. There he converted Maximilla, wife of the proconsul Aegeus. The proconsul commanded him to be seized, scourged and crucified. This was done on a peculiar form of cross resembling the letter X, on which he was fastened with cords in order to make his suffering longer. His address to the cross, as given in the , is of course also legendary. Andrew is also the patron of Hungary, Burgundy and Scotland.]

Qunitilian, celebrated orator and philosopher, a native of Spain, was held in high regard at this time. He was brought to Rome by the emperor Galba, and there established a school. He was a very learned and courageous man. He wrote eight books on the art of oratory; also another on useful matters, containing this excellent and memorable saying: God willed that we do not neglect the teachings of our books. We easily proceed from infancy to pleasures, and a weak or neglectful rearing breaks up the arterial system of mind and body. The book on oratory, lost for nearly six hundred years, was discovered in its entirety about the Year of the Lord 1414 (during the Concilium at Constance) in a monastery by Pogio Florentino, a very learned man, and was transcribed by him and brought into Italy.[M. Fabius Quintilianus, the most celebrated of Roman rhetoricians, was born at Calagurris (Calahorra), in Spain, in 40 CE. If not raised at Rome, he must at least have completed his education there, for he himself informs us that, while yet a very young man, he attended the lectures of Domitius Afer, who died in 59. Having revisited Spain, he returned from there in the year 68 in the train of Galba, and immediately began to practice the law, where he acquired considerable reputation. But he was chiefly distinguished as a teacher of eloquence, bearing away the palm in this department from all his rivals, and associating his name, even to a proverb, with pre-eminence in the art. Among his pupils was Pliny the younger. He was invested with the insignia and title of consul (consularia ornamenta) and is, moreover, celebrated as the first public instructor, who, in virtue of the endowment by Vespasian, received a regular salary from the imperial goverment. After having devoted twenty years to his profession, he retired to private life, and is supposed to have died about 118. The work of Quintilian is a complete system of rhetoric in twelve books, entitled , or sometimes , dedicated to his friend Marcellus Victorius, himself a celebrated orator, and a favorite at court. It was written during the reign of Domitian, while the author was discharging his duties as teacher to the sons of the emperor’s niece. There are also extant 164 declamations under the name of Quintilian, but no one believes these to be the works of this great orator.]

Thomas Didymus, also called Geminus, one of the twelve apostles, was he who doubted the ascension of Christ; and, more than the Magdalene, he confirmed us in our faith, for he was a witness of the ascension, not only by seeing and hearing but also through touch. He preached the gospel to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians and Brachmanians,[Hyrcania, a province of the ancient Persian Empire on the shores of the Caspian or Hyrcanian Sea, and separated by mountains from Media, Parthia, and Margiana. It flourished most under the Parthians, whose kings often resided there during the summer months. The Brachmanae is a name used by the ancient geographers, sometimes for a caste of priests in India (the Brahmins), sometimes, apparently, for all the people whose religion was Brahminism, and sometimes for a particular tribe.] and he converted many people in Upper and Lower India. He baptized Migdonia Carithius, a friend of the king’s wife, and he founded many churches that are still to be seen. From there, as Chrysostom says, he went to the country of the three kings who came to worship Christ; and he brought them to baptism and took them on as associates to assist in the Christian faith. And at last he was cast into a burning oven by the unbelievers, but he emerged from it unscathed. He was then led forth to worship the idol of the sun; at which the apostle, on bended knee, said: I pray to my Lord Jesus Christ. I pray to you who here lies hidden to destroy this idol. And when that happened the priest of the devil was very angry and he stabbed the apostle with a spear. Before long his body was taken to the city of Edessa. It is thought that Thomas was not present at the death of Mary, and he doubted the ascension of her soul and body. Therefore the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him and gave him her girdle as evidence. Of this there is no credible writing at hand.[Thomas was one of the twelve apostles. He was also called "Didymus" ("the twin"). We know little of his history. He seems to have been of singular temperament, cautious, skeptical, thoughtful, and gloomy, yet holding fast what he once believed (John 11:16; 14:5; 20:20-29). He represents the honest, truth-loving skepticism among the apostles. He would not believe in the resurrection until he had tangible evidence of it—until he was allowed to touch Jesus’ pierced hands and side. There are various traditions in regard to his history after the ascension of Jesus. The earliest represent him as preaching in Persia; the later, in India. Legend reports that he suffered martyrdom.]