First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The Order of The Cross-Bearers, begun in the Lateran Council, but inactive for a long time, was re-established and confirmed by Pope Innocent the Third in the 18th year of his pontificate. The order originated through the fact that a wicked and injurious heresy had arisen among the Albigensians

Albigensian is the usual designation of the heretics – more especially the Catharist heretics – of the south of France in the 12th and 13th centuries; but the designation is hardly exact, for the center of the movement was at Toulouse and in the neighboring districts, rather than at Albi (the ancient Albiga). The ‘heresy’, which had penetrated into these regions probably by trade routes, may have come originally from eastern Europe. The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was often applied to the Albigensians, and they kept up communication with the Bogomil secretaries of Thrace.

It is exceedingly difficult to form any exact idea of their doctrines, as our knowledge of them is derived from their opponents and a few rare texts emanating from the Albigensians containing inadequate information concerning their metaphysical principles and moral practice. It is certain that they formed an anti-sacerdotal party in permanent opposition to the Roman Church, and raised a continued protest against the corruption of the clergy of their time. The Albigensian theologians and ascetics, the Cathari, or perfecti, were few in number. The mass of believers were perhaps not initiated into the Catharist doctrine; at all events they were free from all moral prohibition and all religious obligation, on condition that they promised to become “hereticized” by receiving the consolamentum, the baptism of the Spirit, before their death or even in extremis.

The first Catharist heretics appeared in Limousin between 1012 and 1020. Protected by William IX, duke of Aquitaine, and soon by a great part of the southern nobility, the movement gained ground in the south, and, in 1119, the Council of Toulouse in vain ordered the secular powers to assist the ecclesiastical authority in quelling the heresy. The people were attached to these bons homes, as these good Christians were called; for their asceticism and anti-sacerdotal preaching impressed the masses, and the movement maintained vigorous activity for another hundred years until Innocent III became pope. Innocent tried to pacify them and to effect their conversion, but he was opposed, not only by the people themselves, but also by the nobles who protected them, and by the bishops of the district who rejected the extraordinary authority that the pope had conferred on his legates. At last (1209) the pope ordered the Cistercians to preach the crusade against the Albigensians. This implacable war, which threw the whole of the nobility of the north of France against that of the south, and destroyed the brilliant Provencal civilization, ended, politically, in the Treaty of Paris (1229), which destroyed the independence of the princes of the south, but did not extinguish the heresy, in spite of the wholesale massacres of the heretics during the war. The Inquisition, however, operated continuously in the south of Toulouse, Albi, and other towns during the whole of the 13th century and a great part of the 14th, and succeeded in crushing it by means of its confiscations, bitter persecutions, and terrible measures. In 1245, the royal officers assisting the Inquisition seized the heretical citadel of Montsegur, and 200 Cathari were burned in one day. Moreover, the church decreed severe chastisement against all laymen suspected of sympathy with the heretics. Hunted down by the Inquisition, and abandoned by the nobles of the district, the Albigensians became more and more scattered, hiding in the forests and mountains, and only meeting surreptitiously. The sect, moreover, was exhausted and could find no more adepts in a district that, by fair means or foul, had arrived at a state of peace and unity.

, causing serious dissensions among the Roman people and the clergy. Therefore the pope sent against these heretics many who were marked by the cross; and they were overcome. And so he reestablished this long extinguished order, endowed with many privileges and favors. For this order Pope Innocent the Fourth, then at Lyons, prescribed a rule to the effect that the spirituals of this order should always carry a cross in hand. Quiriacus[Quiriacus (or St. Judas) previously referred to as Ciriacus, or Cyriacus (see Folio CXXX verso, Helena), was, according to Eusebius, the 15th bishop of Jerusalem. He is said to have been a Jew who was the nephew of Stephen the first martyr, and grandson of Zacharias, and is credited with having revealed to Helena the place where the cross of Christ was hidden. He was converted by the miracles said to have been wrought on its discovery, and was baptized under the name of Quiriacus, or Cyriacus, and became bishop of Jerusalem. The story is too absurd to need refutation. There is no patriarch named Cyriacus, and Judas died in 133. Helena did not visit Jerusalem until 326.], the bishop and martyr, is said to have been the founder and leader of this order in the time of Helen, mother of Constantine the Great; but the order declined since then and came to nothing.

Beginning of the Kingdom of the Tartars

David, a Persian, born of ignoble parents, king of the Tartars, and an arrogant man, at this time, with hostile intent, migrated from the mountains of India, with all the men and women of his tribe, plundering and robbing all the cities near by. By dividing the spoils among his people he encouraged them to proceed through Parthia, Media, Assyria, Persia, Armenia and Sarmatia in a short time; and they proceeded as far as the Palus Maeotis[Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov), is an inland sea on the borders of Europe and Asia, north of the Black Sea, with which it communicates. It receives the waters of the great river Tanais (Don).], where they settled down. These Tartars are an ill-formed people, with large bulging eyes, broad face, flat forehead and nose, and of medium stature. They are so proud and haughty that they call their leader Cham[Cham no doubt refers to Genghis Khan, the Mongol emperor and warrior of many conquests. He conquered northern China, Tartary, and Persia, and his military operations are said to have caused the death of five million people. This Mongol emperor was born on the banks of the river Onon in the year 1162. Nurtured as the chief of a petty Mongolian tribe, he lived to see his armies victorious from the China Sea to the banks of the Dnieper; and, though the empire which he created dwindled in the hands of his descendents, leaving not a trace of it behind, we have in the presence of the Turks in Europe a consequence of his rule, since it was the advance of his armies which drove their Osmanli ancestors from their original home in northern Asia, and thus led to their invasion of Bithynia under Othman, and finally their advance into Europe under Amurath I.], a son of God. Historians write many more things about their character[This sentence is replaced in the German edition of the with the following: ‘Now Uso is their prince.’].

Tatars (less correctly Tartars) is a name given to several million inhabitants of the Russian empire, chiefly Muslim and of Turkish origin. The majority – in European Russia – are remnants of the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, while those who inhabit Siberia are survivals of the once much more numerous Turkish population of the Ural-Altaic region, mixed to some extent with Finnish and Samoyedic stems, as also with Mongols. The name is derived from that of the Ta-ta Mongols, who in the fifth century inhabited the northeastern Gobi, and, after subjugation in the 9th century by the Khitans, migrated southward, there founding the Mongol empire. The present Tatar inhabitants of European Russia contain very little admixture of Mongolian ancestry, but belong to the Turkish branch of the Ural-Altaic stock. On the Volga they mingled with remnants of the old Bulgarian empire, elsewhere with Finnish peoples, and with remnants of the ancient Italian and Greek colonies in Crimea, and Caucasians in Caucasus. The name of Tatars, or Tartars, given to the invaders, was afterwards extended to the different stems of the same Turkish branch in Siberia, and even to the bulk of the inhabitants of the high plateau of Asia and its northwestern slopes, described under the name of Tartary. The Tatar inhabitants of the Russian empire formed three large groups – those of European Russia and Poland, those of Caucasus, and those of Siberia.

The early history of the Mongols is extremely obscure. Even the meaning of the name “Mongol” is in dispute, though a general consent is now given to the etymology of the word from ‘mong,’ meaning brave. In the absence of historical particulars, legend has been busy with their early years. The Mongol historian, Sanang Setsen, gives currency to the myth that the Mongols sprang from a blue wolf; while the soberest story on record is that their ancestor Budantsar was miraculously conceived of a Mongol widow.

The Order of The Carmelites was originated at this time by Albert, the patriarch of Jerusalem, at Mount Carmel in Syria; and he endowed it with many privileges. By virtue of his authority he prescribed a rule for the order. When this order spread out in the world, increasing daily in membership and in the number of its excellent cloisters, it suffered many attacks over a long period of time. However, when Pope Honorius, the third of this name, observed that this holy order had been unjustly subjected to these attacks for a long time, and had been persecuted, he made some change in the dress of the order, and gave the order the name of the Virgin of Mount Carmel.[The Carmelites chose for the protectress of their order the Virgin Mary; and Honorius III commanded that they should be styled “The Family of the Most Blessed Virgin.” Thus in all the convents of the Carmelites the Virgin holds a conspicuous place, being frequently exhibited with her mantle outspread, while her “Family” – the friars and nuns of the Order – are gathered beneath its protecting folds; and among them Albert as bishop, Angelus the martyr, etc.] It is said that while the members of this order were the original habit, the order was held in great veneration by the Sultan, and endowed with many alms; but after the habit was changed, he drove the order out of his kingdom, making it necessary for its members to go to Europe. There the order grew marvelously, giving birth to many distinguished and celebrated men of piety and ability, such as Angelus[Angelus, according to the apocryphal legend, came from the east, landed in Sicily about 1217, and preached at Palermo and Messina. He was assassinated by a certain Count Berengar, a powerful lord of that country, who for several years had lived openly in unhallowed union with his own sister. For this Angelus rebuked Berengar, who caused him to be hung upon a tree and shot with arrows. At least his martyrdom is so represented by Caracci.], a very passionate declaimer, Albert of Sicily[Albert of Vercelli, bishop there and patriarch of the city of Jerusalem, is regarded by historians as the real founder of the Carmelite Order. He is usually depicted in his Episcopal robes, carrying the palm as martyr; for it is recorded in his Life that being summoned from Palestine by Innocent III to attend a council in the Lateran, as he was preparing to embark, he was assassinated at Acre by a wicked man whom he had reproved for his crime.], and Cyril (Cirillus), a very learned Greek man, who, on account of the many books he published, was famous for the gift of prophecy. And others very famous.[The historical origin of the Carmelites must be placed at the middle of the 12th century, when a crusader from Calabria, named Berthold, and ten companions established themselves as hermits near the cave of Elias on Mount Carmel. About 1210 the hermits on Carmel received from Albert, Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, a rule of 16 articles. The life prescribed was strictly eremitical: the monks were to live in separate cells or huts, devoted to prayer and work; they met only in the oratory for the liturgical services, and were to live a life of great silence, seclusion, abstinence and austerity. This rule received papal approbation in 1226. Soon, however, the loss of Christian arms in Palestine made Carmel an unsafe place of residence for western hermits, and so they migrated first to Cyprus and from there to Sicily, France, and England. The locality being changed, the institution was adapted to its new western surroundings. The austerities were mitigated, and the life was turned from eremitical into cenobitical, but on the mendicant rather than on the monastic model. The Carmelites became one of the four great orders of Mendicant Friars.]


Cross-Bearing Monk of the above order; in his hand, and designed upon his habit, a cross.