First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Philip, a prince in Swabia, duke of Etruria, brother of Emperor Henry (Heinrici), and regent for Frederick, Henry’s son, undertook the rule of the Roman empire. However, upon the death of Henry great dissension took place among the electors. Some elected Otto, brother of the duke of Saxony, while others wanted this Philip who had been appointed by Henry. Turmoil and war followed. The king of France took the part of Philip, while the king of England was on the side of Duke Otto. In the meantime the Italians recognized neither as emperor. Philip prepared for war, and in the year 1200 marched into Alsace, devastated it, and besieged Strasbourg, bringing it under his dominion. Two years later he did likewise in Thüringia, defeating the landgrave there. And as Henry and Frederick, this Philip’s father and brother (as is known), had opposed the Roman Church, Pope Innocent confirmed Duke Otto as emperor. But Philip pursued Otto with an army, driving him out everywhere. Otto came to Cologne, where he was heavily besieged by Philip, who defeated Otto in battle before Cologne; and Otto was driven out by those of Cologne, who hailed Philip as the Roman king. But as the princes and states of the kingdom had become weary of this long war, peace was made, and Philip was declared Roman emperor. He reigned nine years, but not without care and hardship. He did not remain at rest for long after entering upon the sovereignty; for through the landgrave of Thüringia, or as several others write, through Otto, count palatine of Wittelsbach, he was slain at Bamberg on the 10th day of the Kalends of July, and his body was buried at Spire in Bamberg by the order of Frederick.

Philip (c. 1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of Emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I, and brother of the emperor Henry VI. He entered the church and was chosen bishop of Würzburg; but he forsook his ecclesiastical calling and was made duke of Tuscany in 1195, receiving an extensive grant of lands. On the death of his brother Conrad in 1196 he became duke of Swabia. He appears to have been designated as guardian of the young Frederick, afterwards the emperor Frederick II, in case of his father’s early death. In 1197 he had set out to bring Frederick from Sicily for his coronation, when he heard of the emperor’s death and returned at once to Germany. He found growing hostility to the kingship of a child, and the absence of the two Welf claimants, Otto and Henry, the sons of Henry the Lion, made possible Philip’s own election in 1198.

Meanwhile, a number of princes hostile to Philip, under the leadership of Adolph, archbishop of Cologne, had elected an anti-king in the person of Otto, second son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. A war followed in which Philip drew his principal support from south Germany, and he carried the war into his opponent’s territory. In March 1201, Innocent III placed Philip and his associates under the ban, and began to work for Otto. Otto, aided by the king of Bohemia and the landgrave of Thüringia, drove him from north Germany. But the submission of the landgrave in 1204 marked the turning point of Philip’s fortunes, and he was soon joined by Adolph of Cologne and Henry I, duke of Brabant. In 1205, Philip was crowned, though it was not until 1207 that his entry into Cologne practically brought the war to a close. Philip was then set free from the papal ban. He was preparing to crush the last flicker of the rebellion in Brunswick when he was murdered at Bamberg in 1208 by Otto of Wittelsbach, count palatine in Bavaria, to whom he had refused the hand of one of his daughters. He left four daughters, one of whom, Beatrix, afterwards married his rival, the emperor Otto IV. Philip was a brave man, and contemporary writers, among whom was Walther von der Vogelweide, praise his mildness and generosity.

Otto, duke of Saxony, the fourth of this name, was elected king by his Germans in the Year from the Nativity of the Lord 1209 upon the assassination of Philip; and he reigned three years. He soon journeyed to Rome and received the imperial crown from Pope Innocent; but after thus receiving it, he seized the lands and estates of the churches, contrary to the oath and obligation by which he was related to the Roman See. He likewise attacked the Neapolitan country. Although Pope Innocent often solicited Otto to return the estates of the churches to him as overlord, and reminded him of his obligation so to do, yet the pope failed to obtain them. For this reason the pope excommunicated Otto, who, however, continued his obstinate course, resulting in turmoil, robbery and murder in the streets of Rome. And so he was deposed as Roman emperor and German king, and his subjects were released of their obligation and fealty. In consequence, the king of Bohemia, the landgrave of Thüringia, the archbishops of Mainz and Trier, the duke of Austria, and the most distinguished among the knights and nobles deserted him. Then Otto returned to Germany, where Philip of France made war against him. Finally, in the year 1218, Emperor Otto died in sorrow and gloom.

Otto IV (c. 1182-1218), Roman emperor, second son of Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and Matilda, daughter of Henry II, king of England, was educated at the court of his uncle, Richard I, king of England, under whose leadership he gained valuable experience in war. When Emperor Henry VI died in 1197, some of the princes under the leadership of the archbishop of Cologne were anxious to find a rival to Philip, duke of Swabia, who had been elected German king. The choice fell on Otto, who was chosen king at Cologne in 1198. Hostilities broke out at once, and Otto was finally driven to Brunswick. Preparations were made to drive him from here, when the murder of Philip saved him. Otto submitted to a fresh election and was chosen German king at Frankfurt in 1208 in the presence of a large gathering of princes. A general reconciliation followed. The pope, who had previously recognized the victorious Philip, now hastened to the side of Otto; large concessions were made to the church.

In 1209, the king set out for Italy. He was received by Innocent at Viterbo; but he refused the papal demand to concede to the church the territories which had been in dispute, consenting, however, not to claim supremacy over Sicily. He was crowned emperor at Rome in 1209, a ceremony that was followed by fighting between the Romans and the German soldiers. The pope then requested the emperor to leave Roman territory; but he remained near Rome for some days, demanding satisfaction for the losses suffered by his troops. The breach with Innocent soon widened, and Otto attempted to recover for the Empire all the property that Innocent had annexed to the church.

Having occupied Tuscany, he marched into Apuleia, and in 1210, was excommunicated by the pope. Regardless of this sentence, Otto completed the conquest of southern Italy, but the efforts of Innocent had succeeded in arousing the rebels in Germany, who were supported by Philip Augustus, king of France. A number of princes assembled at Nuremberg, declared Otto deposed, and invited Frederick to fill the vacant throne. Returning to Germany in 1212, Otto made some headway against his enemies, but the final blow to his fortunes came when he was decisively defeated by the French at Bouvines in 1214. He escaped with difficulty and took refuge at Cologne. His former supporters hastened to recognize Frederick, and, in 1216, Otto left Cologne for Brunswick, which he had received in 1202 by arrangement with his elder brother, Henry. Otto died in 1218 at Harzburg, leaving no children.

Raynaldus (Rainaldus), archbishop of Cologne, after the destruction of Milan by Emperor Frederick, brought from there the remains of the three holy kings.

Richard, a child, was martyred at Paris by the Jews. He performed many miracles. When information reached King Philip of France that for many years the Jews had committed evil acts in outraging the Christian faith, he deprived them of all their possessions and estates, and drove them out of the kingdom.