First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Henry (Heinricus), the sixth of this name, first son of Frederick, was elected future Roman emperor by the electors in the Year of the Lord 1190; and he reigned eight years. Having previously been made king by his father, he received the crown at Aix-la-Chapelle. He became involved in a war with those of Cologne; but after the bishop of Liege was slain, he pardoned them. Later he was crowned emperor by Pope Celestine on condition that after the recovery of the kingdom on this side and the further side of the sea of Sicily, he would pay an annual tribute out of his own funds and confirm the church-lands to the pope. In order that this might be accomplished more easily, he arranged that Constance, daughter of the Norman king at Palermo (Parnormi)[Palermo (Latin, Panormus or Panhormus), is a city of Sicily. It is the capital of an Italian province of the same name, and the see of an archbishop. It was taken from Carthage by the Romans during the Punic Wars (254 BCE). It was captured by the Vandal Genseric in 440 CE. It later became a part of the East-Gothic dominion, and was recovered for the Eastern Roman empire by Belisarius in 535. It was taken by the Saracens in 835 and became the Muslim capital of Sicily. After the Norman conquest, the city remained for a short time in the hands of the dukes of Apuleia; but in 1093, half the city was ceded to Count Roger, and, in 1122, the rest was ceded to the second Roger. During the Norman reigns, Palermo was the main center of Sicilian history, and perhaps the first successful multi-cultural state (where Normans, Arabs, Jews, Byzantine Greeks, and Sicilians, at least on a nominal level, worked together in the imperial government). The emperor Henry VI entered Palermo in 1194, and it became the chief scene of his cruelties. In 1198, his son Frederick, afterwards emperor, was crowned there.] now living in a cloister, be removed from there; and (now being regarded too old to bear) he married her with the permission of the pope. In the first year of his reign Henry and his spouse besieged Naples; but they returned to Germany on account of the plague. Afterwards, at the request of Pope Celestine, Henry led a mighty army into Italy, taking with him his wife Constance and Frederick his son, born to them beyond the expectations of everyone, on account of age. Without great effort he subjugated the city of Naples and so much of Italy as belonged to the kingdom of Sicily, and later Sicily itself. It is officially stated that he secured possession of an exceedingly large treasure which the Norman kings had been collecting for a long time, and secretly sent it to Germany. Pope Celestine asked him to come to Rome from Palermo where various matters were being transacted concerning the recovery of the Holy Land and of Jerusalem. Although Henry did not wish to undertake these matters in person, he agreed to participate through emissaries and advisers. He ordered the archbishop of Mainz and the Duke of Saxony to handle these affairs, and commanded them to assemble the people and the army throughout Germany. Simultaneously the Saracens with a large and mighty fleet proceeded to lower Spain; and they defeated the King of Castile and subjugated much land and many people. They held possession of the great city of Granada into the year 1492. When Henry again returned to the empire, he became seriously ill at Messina in Sicily; and he sent emissaries to Pope Innocent, commending to him his wife and son, and Philip his brother, to whom he invested with a feudal estate all of Etruria, with the title of duke, and the regency of the Roman empire, and the sovereignty of the kingdom of Sicily, until his son should become of age. Having arranged his affairs and made his will, he died at Palermo. His death caused no small amount of turmoil and destruction in Asia and Germany. Henry was strict in his affairs, keen in dealing with the enemy, generous, versatile, handsome of countenance, of medium stature, and intelligent. He was buried magnificently in the church of Palermo.

Henry VI, Roman emperor, son of the emperor Frederick I, and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of upper Burgundy, was chosen German king at Bamberg and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1169. In 1184 his father sought to procure his coronation from Pope Lucius III, but the pope refused because of the marriage arranged between Henry and Constance, daughter of Roger I, late king of Sicily, a step which threatened to unite Sicily with Germany. This marriage took place at Milan in 1186, and soon afterward Henry was crowned king of Italy. Having been recognized by the pope as Roman emperor elect, Henry returned to Germany, where a campaign against Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, was followed by a peace made at Fulda in 1190.

A promise of his coronation from Pope Clement III led Henry to cross the Alps in the winter of 1190. On reaching Rome, he found Clement dead and his successor, Celestine III, disinclined to carry out the coronation. However, the strength of the German army and a treaty made between the king and the Romans, induced him to crown Henry in 1191. Meanwhile, a party in Sicily had chosen Tancred, illegitimate son of Roger, son of King Roger II, as king. Henry marched to Naples, but was compelled to raise the siege and return to Germany. There the Welfs and their earlier opponents were united against the emperor, vacancies in various bishoprics added to the confusion, and Henry was suspected of being implicated in the murder of Albert, bishop of Liege. His salvation came from the captivity of Richard I, king of England, and the skill with which he used this event to make peace with his foes. When Henry the Lion came to terms, in 1194, order was restored in Germany. But the following May, Henry again went to Italy where Pope Celestine had espoused the cause of Tancred. When he reached Sicily, he found Tancred dead, and meeting with little resistance, entered Palermo where he was crowned king in 1194. Leaving his wife, Constance, as regent, he returned to Germany in 1195.

Having established his position in Germany and Italy, Henry began to cherish ideas of universal empire. To complete his scheme, two steps were necessary, reconciliation with the pope, and recognition of his young son Frederick as his successor in the empire. Henry met the princes at Worms in 1195 to secure confirmation of his schemes, but failed. In 1196, Henry again went to Italy to persuade the pope to crown his son who had been chosen king of the Romans at Frankfort. Celestine refused. From Rome Henry proceeded to southern Italy where he put down an insurrection with terrible cruelty. He died at Messina from a cold contracted while hunting in 1197.

Helinandus, a monk, and a well-spoken, spiritual and learned man, lived at this time. He wrote a chronicle from the beginning of the world to his own time, and incorporated it in a large book. But this book has been so separated and scattered about that the entire work cannot be found anywhere.[]

Papias, a Lombard, well versed in the Latin and Greek tongues, compiled a dictionary at this time, and wrote many elegant letters.[]

Azo (Azonem), a native of Bologna, and highly learned in the imperial civil law, at this time wrote such excellent and numerous interpretations and expositions of the law, that the legal scholars called him the spring of imperial jurisprudence.[Azo (c. 1150-1230), Italian jurist, was born at Bologna, studied under Joannes Bassianus, and became professor of civil law at Bologna. Azo occupied a very important position among the glossators, and his , and , formed a methodical exposition of Roman law, and were of so much weight before the tribunals that it used to be said, “Chi non ha Azzo, non vada a Pallazo.” Azo numbered among his pupils Accursius and Jacobus Baldvinus. He died about 1230.]

Martinus, likewise called Bosianus, an excellent teacher of the same law, also flourished at this time. Other men learned in the law called him a luminary of jurisprudence, and a mirror of the world.[The text probably refers to Joannes Bassianus, Italian jurist of the 12th century, who is said to have been a native of Cremona. He was a professor in the law school of Bologna. His best known extant treatise is the , which Savigny regarded as one of the most precious works of the gloss-writers. Bassianus was remarkable for his talent in inventing ingenious forms to set forth his ideas, and perhaps his most celebrated work is his “Law-Tree” , the subject of many commentaries. It presents a kind of tree upon the branches of which the various kinds of actions are arranged like fruit. The civil actions, 48 in number, are on one side, and the equitable, 121, on the other. A further division of actions was made by him under 12 heads, and by a system of notation the student could class at once each of the two kinds of actions under its proper head. His lectures on the and the have perished.]