First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 6384

Year of Christ 1174[The German edition of the has ‘Year of Christ 1184’ in place of the Latin edition’s ‘1174.’ Pope Lucius III, however, died in 1185.]

Lucius, the third pope of this name, a Tuscan, born of noble lineage in the city of Lucca, was elected pope in the usual manner to succeed Pope Alexander. He undertook to remove the senators of the Romans; but the hand of the senate was so powerful that after Lucius was driven from the city, his favorites and adherents were cruelly persecuted. He who let it be known that he favored the pope or was one of his adherents, and did not take to safety, suffered the loss of his eyes. Afterwards the pope fled to Verona. There he summoned a council, and complained of the waywardness and pride of the Romans; and he admonished all Christian princes to rescue Jerusalem and the Holy Land. But while the emissaries were sent back and forth in this matter, the pope died in the fourth year, second month, and twenty-eighth day of his pontificate.[Lucius III (Ubaldo Allucingela), pope from 1181 to 1185, a native of Lucca, and a Cistercian monk, named cardinal priest of Santa Pressede by Innocent II, and cardinal bishop of Ostia and Velletri by Adrian IV, succeeded Alexander III. He lived in Rome from 1181 to 1182, but dissension compelled him to spend the remainder of his pontificate in exile, mainly at Velletri, Anagni, and Verona. In 1184, he held a synod at Verona, which condemned the Cathari, Paterines, Waldensians, and Arnoldists, and anathematized all heretics and their abettors. He died in the midst of a crusade in answer to appeals of Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, and was succeeded by Urban III.]

Pope Urban the Third, a native of Milan, as soon as he became pope, diligently sought to establish confidence and unity among the Christian princes so that they would not succumb to the infidels in consequence of their dissensions. When he began to fear the power of Saladin, he exhorted the Christians, by a general summons, to send men to Asia. But as matters were delayed and neglected, he proceeded to Venice in a passionate state of mind, to summon the Christian knighthood to an assembly; but when he arrived at Ferrara, and received word of the defeat of the Christians, he died in sorrow of a fever in the first year, 10th month, and 25th day of his pontificate.[Urban III (Uberto Crivelli), pope from 1185 to 1187, was a Milanese, and had been made a cardinal priest of St. Lorenzo in Damaso, and archbishop of Milan by Lucius III, whom he succeeded. He vigorously continued the quarrels of his predecessor with the emperor, including the standing dispute about the territories that the Countess Matilda had willed and given to the Church. His opposition to the pretensions of the Roman senate to govern the Papal States compelled him to remain in exile throughout his pontificate. He suspended the patriarch of Aquileia for crowning the emperor’s son, Henry, king of Italy, in 1186, in violation of his own rights as archbishop of Milan, and only the entreaties of the citizens of Verona, where he was stopping, prevented him from excommunicating Frederick. In 1187, he exhorted the Christian kings to renewed endeavors in the Holy Land, and the fall of Jerusalem is said to have caused his death. He was succeeded by Gregory VIII.]

Pope Gregory the Eighth, a native of Benevento, was elevated to pope by a general election of the people. Through fervor and the heat of passion, he suffered death as his predecessor had done, but a speedier one. From the very beginning of his pontificate he sent dispatches and emissaries to the Christian princes, exhorting them to join him, with all their power and military forces, and to proceed to Jerusalem, to assist in its recovery. While he proceeded with these proposals, he went to Pisa, while the Pisans were at enmity with the Genoese. And as both parties were strong in naval power, and therefore could be very helpful to the crusade by sea as well as promote the cause, he established unity between them, on condition, however, that each party should send a strong naval force into Asia against the enemies of the Christian faith. But while this holy man thus diligently managed these matters, he died at Pisa on the fifty-seventh day of his pontificate.[Gregory VIII (Alberto de Mora), pope for a period of 57 days, from October 21st to December 17th, 1187, a native of Benevento and a Praemonstratensian monk, successively abbot of St. Martin and Laon, cardinal deacon of San Andriano al foro, cardinal priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina, and chancellor of the Roman Church, was elected pope to succeed Urban III. He died at Pisa while engaged in making peace between the Pisans and the Genoese in order to secure their help in a new Crusade that he was urging for the recovery of Jerusalem.]

Joachim, an abbot of Calabria, came to Pope Urban at Verona. This Joachim, a man of great learning and extraordinary divine intelligence, was at this time held in great esteem by King William (Guilhelmum) and all the Calabrians. And (as they say) he was filled with the spirit of prophesy, prognosticating future events as though they were present occurrences. He did not acquire his knowledge from highly learned men, but received the gift of judgment by divine means; and he interpreted the difficult passages of the Scriptures with understanding. To him are also said to have been revealed the future relations between the kings of France and England, who were wintering at the city of Messina. On a certain occasion he was asked what was to be hoped for in the matter of the expedition of the Saracens, and he answered that the time for the recovery of Jerusalem had not yet arrived. But what he wrote concerning the future, we will commend to the judgment and cognizance of posterity, and leave to God to manage.

Joachim of Floris, or Fiore, an Italian mystic theologian, was born at Celico, near Cosenza, in Calabria, about 1145, and was brought up at the court of Duke Roger of Apuleia. At an early age he went to visit the holy places. After seeing his comrades decimated by the plague at Constantinople, he resolved to change his mode of life, and, on his return to Italy, became a monk in the Cistercian abbey of Casamari. He later became an abbot, and with some companions founded under a rule of his own creation the abbey of San Giovanni in Fiore, on Monte Nero in the massif of LaSila. In 1204 Innocent III approved the order and the rule which its founder had imposed upon it. Joachim died in 1202. His authenticated works are the Concordia Veteris et Novi Testamenti; the Expositio in Apocalypsin, the Psalterium decum choradum. He also wrote some “libelli” against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith. It is impossible to enumerate all the works attributed to him. Some served their avowed object with great success, being powerful instruments in the anti-papal polemic and sustaining the Franciscans in their hope of an approaching triumph against a papacy which they considered altogether too temporal and unspiritual. Among the most widely circulated were the commentaries on the Jeremiah, Isaiah, and Ezekiel, the Vaticinia pontificum and the De oneribus ecclesiae. Joachim divides history of humanity, past, present, and future, into three periods—the age of the Law, or of the Father; the age of the Gospel or of the Son; and the age of the Spirit, which will bring the ages to an end. The third is the age of contemplation, more Eastern than Benedictine. In his opinion, the church of Peter will not be abolished, but purified; actually, the hierarchy effaces itself in the third age before the order of the monks, the viri spirituales (‘spiritual men’). The entire world will become a vast monastery in that day, which will be the resting season, the Sabbath of humanity.

Joachim did not profess to be a prophet himself, but claimed to possess the gift of interpreting the meaning of Biblical prophecies, and he was later reckoned the national prophet of Italy. His ideas soon spread into Italy and France, and especially after a division had been produced in the Franciscan order. The rigorists, who soon became known as “Spirituals,” represented St. Francis as the initiator of Joachim’s third age. The books of Joachim were published under the name of the Evangelium aeternum, or “Everlasting Gospel.” The work was confiscated by papal order, and the publisher suffered imprisonment for eighteen years. In 1260, a council held at Arles condemned Joachim’s writings and his supporters, who were very numerous in that region. The Joachimite ideas were equally persistent among the Spirituals, and acquired new strength with the publication of the commentary on the Apocalypse. This book, probably published after the death of its author, contains an affirmation of the elect character of the Franciscan order, as well as extremely violent attacks on the papacy.

The Joachimite literature is very vast. >From the 14th to the middle of the 16th century a host of other writers repeated or added to without end the exegesis of Abbot Joachim. Such independent spirits as Roger Bacon often confronted themselves with the thought of the era of justice and peace promised by Joachim. Dante held Joachim in great reverence and has placed him in Paradise (Paradiso xii, 140-141). Joachim’s “Everlasting gospel” derived its name from Revelation 14:6, “And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people.”