First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The Blessed Hartmann, bishop of Brescia (Brixia), and a native of Passau, withdrew from the world in early youth and entered the Regular Canons of Saint Nicholas at Passau. There he grew up in piety, morality, and learning. Bishop Conrad of Salzburg appointed him head of the monastery there. Later, according to the wishes of Margrave Leopold of Austria, he was given a new foundation to govern on the Danube. He soon became provost, and then began to castigate his body by fasting, vigils, and other penances. He loved to indulge in acts of humility. On the death of Reinbert, bishop of Brescia, he was elected successor by the common consent of the clergy. And there he spent his life in piety and miracles, withdrawing from all worldly and carnal pleasures, and devoting himself entirely to prayer and contemplation. He lived in great moderation and amazing austerity, and wore a hair-shirt under his habit. Emperor Frederick was very fond of him, respecting him as a father and confessor. Hartmann mitigated the emperor’s animosity toward Pope Alexander. During this same time two olive branches brightened the churches of God: Eberhart, the bishop of Salzburg, and this Blessed Hartmann, bishop of Brescia, who consumed all his time in watching, praying, and contemplation, or in reading. He preached salvation and condemned war, and finally died in the winter while wading in a stream. After his death he was illustrious for many miracles, and is more especially the faithful patron of pregnant women, who during their travail, call upon the Lord to lend them his assistance.

Amalric (Almericus), the sixth king of Jerusalem, reigned for twelve years after the death of his brother Baldwin (Baldvino) the Third.

The chronicler seems somewhat confused in the lineage of the kings of Jerusalem. He considers Godfrey of Bouillon (1099-1100) as the first king. True, Godfrey did exercise the powers of a ruler, but he declined the title (Folio CXCVI recto). According to more modern chronology, Baldwin I, brother of Godfrey, was the first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118), although the chronicler regards him as the second (CXCVI recto). Baldwin I was succeeded by Baldwin II (1118-1131), nephew of Godfrey and of Baldwin I; and him the chronicler calls the third king of Jerusalem (CXCVIII verso). Baldwin II was succeeded by Fulk, his son-in-law (1131-1143), who according to the chronicler would be the fourth, and according to our reckoning the third king. In the woodcut of Fulk he is referred to as the “fifth” king of Jerusalem (CXCIX recto), which is not correct according to either reckoning.

Fulk was succeeded by his eldest son, Baldwin III (1143-1162), of whom no mention is made in the Chronicle. Form Fulk he proceeds to Amalric I (1162-1174), whom he calls “Almeric sixth king of Jerusalem.” Amalric I is truly the sixth king of Jerusalem according to our calculations, but if the chronicler had not omitted Baldwin III, he would have ranked him as the seventh. The following is a correct statement of the succession up to the time of the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187:

Godfrey of Bouillon(1099-1100)
Baldwin I(1100-1118)
Baldwin II(1118-1131)
Baldwin III(1143-1162, omitted in the Chronicle)
Amalric I(1162-1174)
Baldwin IV(1174-1183)
Baldwin V(1183-1186)

Baldwin III was the eldest son of Fulk, and became king in 1143, under the regency of his mother, which lasted till 1152. From the beginning of his reign the power of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem may be said to slowly decline. Baldwin was eighteen years of age at the time of the Second Crusade, and played his part by the side of Conrad III and Louis VII. They failed in their attack upon Damascus.

Baldwin III was the first of the kings of Jerusalem who was a native of the soil of Palestine. His three predecessors had all been emigrants from the west. They were half churchmen, half fighters, but Baldwin was a subtler type, capable of dealing with court intrigues and legal problems. He spent his spare time in reading, and had a particular affection for history. He had a faculty for remembering faces, and possessed the gift of impromptu eloquence and wit. His married life was a shining example to his people, and he was abstemious both in food and drink.

He was a strong and memorable man. He often fought with the infidels, and slew many of them. He stoutly besieged Alexandria, the capital of Egypt, which Tiracunus, governor of Saladin, the Turkish ruler, had taken from the Egyptian sultan by treachery; so that those of Alexandria (who would not submit to the Christians by any means), allied themselves with King Amalric, with the understanding that through him they should again come under the rule of the sultan. For this reason this Amalric received a large sum of money from the sultan, and left him the city of Alexandria. However, Amalric learned that the Sultan designed to employ treachery in the matter; for which reason, as a magnanimous man, he besieged the mighty city of Cairo (Chairum). But upon the advice of a false counselor, Amalric accepted a sum of money and moved on.[Amalric I, king of Jerusalem, (1162-1174) was the son of Fulk of Jerusalem and the brother of Baldwin III. His reign was occupied by the Egyptian problem. It became a question between Amalric and Nureddin which of the two should control the discordant diziers who vied with one another for the control of the decadent caliphs of Egypt. For some five years a contest was waged between Amalric and Shirguh (Shirkuh), the lieutenant of Nureddin, for the possession of Egypt; but the contest ended in the establishment of Saladin, the nephew of Shirguh, as vizier – a position which, on the death of the puppet caliph in 1171, was turned into that of sovereign. The extinction of the Latin kingdom then seemed imminent, and envoys were sent to the West with anxious appeals for assistance. But though in 1170 Saladin attacked the kingdom, the danger was not so great as it seemed. Nureddin was jealous of his over-mighty subject, and his jealousy bound Saladin’s hands. This was the position when Amalric died in 1174; but, as Nureddin died in the same year, the position was soon altered and Saladin began the final attack on the kingdom. Amalric I, second of the native kings of Jerusalem, had the qualities of his brother, Baldwin III. He was something of a scholar, or, rather, perhaps still more of a lawyer, his delight being knotty points of law, and he knew the assizes better than any of his subjects.]

Albertus, a celebrated soldier, after honorable fighting received the crown of martyrdom.

Anselm (Anshelmus), bishop of Beauvais, after having lived a pious and moral life, died at this time. At his grave a number of lamps were miraculously lighted, all but one, into which a usurer had poured oil.

Philip, king of France, son of the aforesaid Louis, reigned 44 years. When he heard that Jerusalem was lost again, he proceeded into Syria with many Christian princes. When he and Richard, the English king, reached Ptolemais[For Ptolemais, see note to Folio CXCV verso.], and planned to return to Jerusalem, they began to quarrel among themselves over the kingdom. But Philip, having become ill, returned home, leaving Richard behind; and he consumed his remaining years in holy practices.[Philip II, better known as Philip-Augustus, king of France, son of Louis VII, was born in 1165. He was crowned joint king in 1179, and succeeded his father in 1180. He married Isabella of Hainault, the last direct descendant of the Carolingians. His first war against the Count of Flanders gave him Amiens. He punished heretics and despoiled the Jews, and reduced the Duke of Burgundy. He supported the sons of Henry II of England against their father. He and Richard the Lion-Hearted set out on the Third Crusade; but they quarreled in Sicily. After three months in Syria he returned to France, having sworn not to molest Richard’s dominions; but no sooner had he returned than he made a bargain with John for the partition of Richard’s French territories. Richard’s sudden return occasioned an exhausting war until 1199. Philip became involved in a quarrel with the pope. He had put away his second wife, Ingeborg of Denmark, in order to marry Agnes of Meran, but the thunders of the Vatican forced him to restore Ingeborg to her throne. In 1204 Philip added to his dominions Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Tourraine, with part of Poitou, as well as the over-lordship of Brittany. The victory of Bouvines (1214) over the Flemish, the English, and the Emperor Otto, established his throne securely. He died in 1223.]

Elizabeth, a pious nun, was illustrious in Saxony for her miracles. Through angelic revelations she wrote wonderful narratives, and more particularly, a book on the ways of the Lord.[Elizabeth was a visionary. She was placed in the convent of Schoenau, in Saxony, at the age of eleven, and after spending eleven years there, was said to have been visited with extraordinary ecstasies, revelations, and prophesies. First an angle appeared to her and announced certain woes that should befall the people unless they repented, and told her to proclaim them. And when she shrank from so doing, according to her own account written to the abbess Hildegard, the angel took a whip and beat her five times with it, so that her back ached for three days. Then she gave up a book in which she had written her prophecies to the abbot Hildelin. She saw visions of demons as well as heavenly ones, and gives full accounts of all the particulars, even to the color of the dresses of some of the actors in these events. Her visions continued for a period of thirteen years, until her death in 1165.]


Hartmann, bishop and patron saint of pregnant women, is portrayed in Episcopal vestments. Under his mantle he protects a mother who carries her child in swaddling clothes.


Albertus, martyr-knight, portrayed in armor, banner in his right hand.


Elizabeth of Schoengau, Saxon nun, portrayed in her habit. Her right hand is raised in blessing; her left holds a book.