First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Passau (Patavia) is a celebrated and once wealthy city, lying between the river Danube and the river Inn. The Danube comes from the mountains of Swabia, and the Inn from the mountains which separate Germany from Italy. In this region the Inn flows into the Danube and loses its identity. The city is elongated, and would take on the form of an island if a canal were run from the Inn to the Danube. The distance between these rivers does not exceed five hundred paces. A wooden bridge with sixteen arches spans the Inn, and extends from the part of the city that lies beyond the river to the greater city. There is also a bridge over the Danube, and the road that leads across it runs to the mountains that overlook Bohemia. On the other side of these mountains is another river, once called the Niger, and now the Ilz. It flows out of Bohemia, and divides the Jewish quarter from the third part of the city of Passau that lies below the bishop’s castle, and flows into the Danube directly opposite the Inn; and so there is a confluence of three rivers here. In the Italian tongue this city is called Passum, which according to our own language signifies passage; for through this city Italian merchandise was transported into Bohemia. The upper Germans also passed through there to Austria and Hungary; and this is true today. In the heart of the city is church of Saint Stephen the first Martyr, patron of this bishopric, begun at great cost, but not yet completed. The choir is being built handsomely. Beside the church and against the river Inn are the large and attractive courts of the bishops, and beyond the Danube are two bishop'’s castles. One of these is on the heights; the other at the foot of the hill, where the waters of the Danube and the Ilz (which also contains pearl-bearing mollusks) flow into one another. A difficult and perilous way leads to the upper castle, which is vulnerable to attack at only one point; but even there it is protected by walls and moats to such an extent that it cannot be stormed or taken by human strength. In this castle are many beautiful and ornate halls and chambers. But the lower castle is more ornate, with its vaulted chambers and numerous halls; for the