First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 6323

Year of Christ 1124

Honorius the Second, formerly called Lambert and born at Fagnano near rural Imola, was bishop of Ostia, and was elected pope at the time of Baldwin (Baldvinus), who had been ransomed from the enemy and brought Antioch into the kingdom of Jerusalem. Although this Honorius was of low and obscure birth, he was esteemed for his scriptural wisdom and good manners, and considered worthy of the honor. Yet his entry was not entirely satisfactory, for, to some extent, he is said to have attained to the papacy through avarice; and the people zealously desired a Saxon cardinal for pope. Leo Fragipani (Fregepanis), a Roman citizen, also indicated that he favored a cardinal for pope. But when some of the cardinals noted this, they did not favor his choice, and allowed the Saxon to rest and elected as pope another cardinal called Theobald; and they called him Celestine. Then Leo delayed no longer, and proposed the aforesaid Lambert for pope. This pleased the clergy, and by common consent he was recognized as pope. He made cardinals of a number of distinguished men, and afterwards employed the same care in great matters. Finally he died in the fifth year and second month of his pontificate mourned by all, and was buried in the Lateran Basilica with extraordinary honor.[Honorius II (Lamberto Scannabecchi), pope from 1124 to 1130, a native of Fagnano near Imola, was a man of considerable learning and great religious zeal. He held a number of important ecclesiastical offices under Urban II and Paschal II, shared the exile of Gelasius II in France, and helped Calixtus II to conclude the Concordat of Worms (1122), which settled the investiture contest. He was consecrated in 1124, and by means of a close alliance with the Frangipani, he maintained peace at Rome. He recognized the Saxon Lothair III as king of the Romans, and later as emperor, and excommunicated his rival, Conrad of Hohenstaufen. He sanctioned the Praemonstratensian order and that of the Knights Templars. He excommunicated Count William of Normandy for marriage in prohibited degree. He laid claim as feudal overlord to the Norman possessions in southern Italy (1127) and excommunicated the claimant Duke Roger of Sicily, but was unable to prevent the foundation of the Neapolitan monarchy, for Duke Roger defeated the papal army and forced recognition in August 1128. He is not to be confused with Honorius II, the name taken by Peter Cadalus as antipope.]

Innocent the Second, a Roman, was so aroused against Roger, the son of the duke of Sicily, that through anger, rather than by power and skill pertaining to such undertaking, he collected an army in tumultuous haste, and speedily appeared before the city of Saint Germain. In some unforeseen manner he was repulsed, but finally captured the city. However, William, (Guilhelmus) duke of Calabria, son of said Roger, came with a military force, and a battle ensued in which the pope and the cardinals were taken prisoners. Nevertheless, Roger employed prudence, and released the pope and his party, and secured from the pope (with the exception of the title of king), all that he asked for. When Innocent returned to Rome he found that an antipope called Peter had been installed in his place. In Innocent’s absence he robbed the principal Roman churches of their gold and silver ornaments, made these into coins, and with them bribed many people to his will. Then Innocent, leaving behind as governor of Rome a cardinal named Conrad, proceeded with his cardinals to the court of King Philip[The Latin edition of the is here incorrect. Philip II was king of France from 1179 – 1223. Innocent II, however, was already dead in 1143. The German edition corrects this error by replacing Philip with Louis (VI), who was king of France from 1108-1137.] in France, and there held a council in which he condemned Peter, the antipope, and his adherents. After this he returned to Italy with Emperor Lothair. He died in the 14th year, 7th month, and 8th day of his pontificate. At that time there was a great famine in Italy.[Innocent II (Gregorio Papareschi dei Guidoni), pope from 1130 to 1143, was originally a Benedictine monk, whose ability, pure life, and political connections raised him rapidly to power. He became cardinal deacon, and was employed on various diplomatic missions. He participated in the Concordat of Worms as the pope’s ambassador, and became papa legate in France. When Honorius II died, a minority of the Sacred College elected him pope as Innocent II. After a hasty consecration he took refuge with a friendly noble from the supporter’s of his enemy Cardinal Peter Pierleoni, who was elected pope under the name of Anacletus II by a majority of the cardinals. Innocent refused to recognize the choice, and was obliged to flee to France. Here his title was recognized by a synod called by Bernard of Clairvaux. He induced the German king Lothair to invade Italy against Anacletus, and Lothair occupied all of Rome except St. Peter’s church and the castle of St. Angelo. Lothair was crowned emperor at the Lateran in 1133, and Innocent gave him the territories of the Countess Matilda as a fief, but refused to surrender the right of investiture. Left to himself, Innocent again had to flee, this time to Pisa, where he called a council which condemned Anacletus. A second expedition of Lothair expelled Roger of Sicily (whom Anacletus had given the title of king in return for his support), but a quarrel with Innocent prevented the emperor from attacking Rome. Anacletus died in 1138. A faction elected Victor IV, but he resigned after two months. The Lateran council of 1139 restored peace to the church and excommunicated Roger, whom Innocent had proceeded against without success. The remaining years of Innocent’s life were taken up by a quarrel with the Roman commune that had set up an independent senate, and one with Louis VII of France. Innocent died in 1143 and was succeeded by Celestine II.]

Celestine the Second, prevously called Guido, a priest of Saint Mark’s and a cardinal, was from Tuscany. He was unanimously elected pope after the death of Innocent, and encountered no opposition during his pontificate, due, probably, to the famine which raged at that time, and of which he himself died in the fifth month of his pontificate. He was buried in the Lateran.[Celestine II, pope from 1143 to 1144, whose real name was Guido Castello, was born of a noble Tuscan family. He was able and learned, studied under Abelard, and became a cardinal priest. He removed the interdict that Innocent II had employed against Louis VII of France.]

Otto, bishop of Bamberg, born in Swabia of noble parents, was sent to Poland to teach. Afterwards, through the assistance of the duchess of Poland, he was accepted at the court of Emperor Henry (Henrici). Through the good will of the emperor he was appointed to succeed Bishop Rupert, and after this spent four years traveling in Pomerania, converting the people from idolatry to the Christian faith by his lovely teachings and miracles. He also built various monasteries in many regions of the country; also the monastery of Heilbronn, with the assistance and endowments of the Countess of Bamberg. And so this holy man, adorned with many virtues, died in the year 1139, famous for his miracles. He was buried at Monastery Hill at Bamberg. Because of his piety and miracles the pope enrolled him among the number of the saintly confessors.

Otto, Bishop of Bamberg, was the son of noble but somewhat obscure parents, in Swabia. He was early left to provide for himself, and after some schooling, went to Poland, opened a school for boys, acquired a reputation in the duchy for his learning, and a knowledge of the Polish language. After some years spent in Poland, Judith, wife of Wladislas, duke of Poland, died, and the duke sent Otto to Emperor Henry IV to solicit the hand of his sister Sophia. The mission was successful and Otto was constituted chaplain. Under what circumstances he returned to Germany are obscure, whether sent to Henry IV by Sophia, or whether he left the Polish court on the death of the princess, is uncertain. At any rate, after a few years, he appears at the side of Henry IV as his chaplain and confidant, probably in 1092, standing by his sovereign in spite of excommunications and denunciations of the emperor as a heretic. In time he became the emperor’s chancellor, filling the office with industry and goodness, and being loved by all the court.

In 1102 Henry appointed him successor to the deceased Rupert, bishop of Bamberg. By accepting the staff and ring from the emperor, Otto again involved himself in the sentence of excommunication, proclaimed by several popes against those who should acknowledge the imperial jurisdiction; for this reason Otto sent messengers to Rome soliciting sanction of his appointment. Otto was invited to Rome, surrendered the staff and ring, but was reinvested with them by the pope.

Otto set to work in his diocese, building monasteries and restoring his cathedral that was burnt down in the days of his predecessor. He also rebuilt from its foundations the church of St. Michael on the Michaelisberg, which has been thrown down by an earthquake. After the death of Henry IV, he also rendered valuable services in the controversy between his successor, Henry V, and the pope. In 1123 at the request of Boleslaw III, duke of Poland, he undertook the conversion of the Pomeranians who had been subjugated to Poland and were not Christians, and this mission continued until 1127.

Otto died on June 30th, 1139, and was buried in the church of St. Michael, where his tomb is still shown. His relics are preserved in various churches, and a few scanty remains still repose in his tomb on the Michaelisberg at Bamberg.

Baldwin (Baldvinus), the third king of Jerusalem with this name, defeated Gazim, Turkish ruler of Asia Minor, in the second year of his reign. In the following year Baldwin defeated the king of Damascus, who unexpectedly appeared at Jerusalem with hostile intentions. He added the city of Antioch to the kingdom of Jerusalem, and in a battle drove off the king of Ascalon. He finally died, leaving a daughter, but no son.[Baldwin II, count of Edessa, was the second king of Jerusalem, succeeding Baldwin I. The chronicler considers him the third, as he begins his reckoning with Godfrey of Bouillon as the first king. Baldwin II reigned from 1118 to 1131 and was originally known as Baldwin de Burg. He was a son of Count Hugh of Rethel, and a nephew of Godfrey and Baldwin I. He appears in the First Crusade at Constantinople as one of Godfrey’s men. When Baldwin of Edessa became king of Jerusalem, he summoned Baldwin de Burg, and left him as count in Edessa. He conducted forays against the Muslims, and in one of these he was captured, remaining a prisoner for four years. He regained his principality in 1108. In 1110 he was besieged in Edessa, but relieved by Baldwin I. In 1114 he repelled an attack by Aksunkur of Mosul, and in 1115 helped defeat the latter at Danith. He carried his arms against the Armenians, and plundered every Armenian of wealth and position. In 1118, upon the death of Baldwin I, he became king of Jerusalem, and in a reign of thirteen years, extended the kingdom to its widest limits. He defeated the emirs of Mardin and Damascus at Danith in 1119, and in subsequent years extended his sway to the very gates of Aleppo and Damascus, and exacting tribute from both. He married his eldest daughter Melisinda to Fulk, of Anjou, who became the successor to Baldwin II on the latter’s death in 1131.]