First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
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Seneca, also called Lucius Annaeus, a Stoic philosopher, born in Cordoba, was the tutor of Nero the emperor. He was held in esteem at Rome, and was an uncle of Lucan the poet. Of him the pious Jerome writes that he led a most temperate life; and he placed him in the book of the saints because of the numerous epistles that Paul wrote to Seneca, and Seneca to Paul. Among his other virtues God blessed him with such a memory that he was able to repeat two thousand names in proper order as soon as they were pronounced, and could repeat two hundred verses spoken by two hundred students, beginning with the last and ending with the first. It is said that two years before the slaying of Peter and Paul, Seneca was put to death by Nero, his very savage, for having opposed him. For when Seneca was well along in years he was suspected of being a party to the Pisan conspiracy; or, as some say, Nero, recalling the discipline to which he was subjected in his youth, and being born with a hatred of virtue, ordered Seneca to choose the manner of his own death. When Seneca learned of this, he asked to be placed in lukewarm water and all his veins opened until he gave up the spirit, believing this to be an easy manner of death. And so he ended his life. Being a highly learned man, he wrote many works, both human and divine.[Seneca (L. Annaeus), son of the rhetorician, M. Annaeus Seneca, was a philosopher. He was born at Cordoba, probably around 4 BCE, and was brought to Rome by his parents when a child. From his youth he ardently devoted himself to rhetoric and philosophy. He was made the tutor of Nero, and when the latter ascended the throne upon the death of Claudius, Seneca became his chief adviser. He exerted his influence to check the young emperor’s vicious propensities, but at the same time enriched himself through his position. He supported Nero in his conflicts with his mother Agrippina, and was a party to her death. After that Nero completely abandoned himself to his vicious propensities, and the presence of Seneca became irksome to him, while his wealth excited his greed. Seneca’s exclusive claim to eloquence, and his disparagement of Nero’s skill in driving and singing, were urged against him by Nero’s favorites. Seneca heard of the charges. He was rich and knew that Nero wanted money. Offering to surrender his fortune, he asked permission to retire. Nero affected to be grateful for his services, refused the proffered gift, and sent him away with perfidious assurances of his respect and affection. But the conspiracy of Piso gave Nero a pretext for putting his old tutor to death. Although there was no conclusive evidence that Seneca was implicated, Nero sent a tribune to him with an order of death. Without showing any signs of alarm Seneca cheered his friends by reminding them of the lessons of philosophy. His wife chose to die with him, and the same blow opened the veins of both. Seneca died with the courage of a Stoic. His fame rests on his numerous writings, both philosophical and literary (his tragedies in particular had a significant impact on the young Shakespeare).]

Lucan (Lucanus) Annaeus, son of the brother of the aforesaid Seneca, was a highly celebrated orator, poet and historian. Although younger than his uncle, he was his equal in intelligence and moderation. He first studied at Rome under Cornutus, and at the same time Persius and Bassus were his colleagues. And although, by reason of his talents, he was called to court by Nero and was in favor with him for a long time, and for that reason attained to the office of revenue collector and priest, he was accused of conspiracy as Seneca had been, and was put to death, according to his own choice, by the opening of his veins.[M. Annaeus Lucanus (usually called Lucan), the Roman poet, was born at Cordoba in Spain in 39 CE. His father, L. Annaeus Mella, was a brother of Seneca, the philosopher. At an early age he was brought to Rome, and his education was superintended by the most eminent teachers of the day. His talents aroused the jealousy of Nero, who, unable to endure competition, forbade him to recite in public. This injustice caused Lucan to join the famous conspiracy of Piso. But he was betrayed, and on the promise of pardon, he turned informer. After the more important victims, whose names he had disclosed, were dispatched, he also received an order of death, and he chose his veins to be opened. Lucan wrote various poems, the titles of which have been preserved, but the only extant production is his great epic poem (‘The Civil War’; aka ), a work that blends fact and fiction in ten books depicting the struggle between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great for possession of the Roman world.]

Persius Flaccus Aulus—his father was Flaccus, his mother Fulvia—a native of Volaterrana in Etruria, was a person of medium stature, pleasing appearance, good habits, and exceptional intelligence and learning. He first studied grammar, then rhetoric, and finally philosophy under Cornutus.[L. Annaeus Cornutus, a distinguished Stoic philosopher, was born at Leptia in Libya. He came to Rome, probably as a slave, and was emancipated by Annaei. He was the teacher and friend of Persius, the poet, and left him his library. He was banished by Nero for having too freely criticized the latter’s literary attempts. He wrote a large number of works, all of which are lost.] He died of a disease of the stomach at the age of twenty-nine years, while Nero still reigned. He was buried on his estate at Rome. At this time Cornutus, the philosopher and poet, was also sent into exile by Nero on various accusations. Because of his devotion to his disciple Persius, he collected a library. He left his earnings to his sisters as an inheritance.[A. Persius Flaccus, the poet, was a Roman knight, connected by blood and marriage with persons of the highest rank. He was born at Volaterrana in Etruria on December 4, 34 CE. He received his early education in his native town. At the age of twelve he was sent to Rome, where he studied grammar and rhetoric under celebrated masters. He was afterwards the pupil of Cornutus the Stoic, who became his guide, philosopher and friend, and to whom he firmly attached himself. He died of a stomach ailment on November 24, 62 CE, before he had completed his twenty-eighth year. He wrote seldom, and then slowly. His extant works consist of six short satires, and these were left in an unfinished state.]

Philip was one of the twelve apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ, who called upon Philip to follow him. Philip enlisted his brother Nathanael, a doctor of law, in whom there was no guile in favor of anyone not called as an apostle, so that the conversion of the people to the faith should not be subordinated to human wisdom. Now after the apostle had preached for twenty years through the land of Scythia, and had converted all the Scythians to faith in Christ, he came to Hierapolis,[ Hierapolis, a city of Great Phrygia, near the Maeander River. Like the neighboring cities of Colossae and Laodicea, it was an early seat of Christianity, and is mentioned in Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians (4:13).] in Asia. There he extinguished the heresy of the Ebionites,[The Ebionites were an ultra-Jewish party in the early Christian Church, between the second and the fourth century, chiefly made up of Pharisees and Essenes, and characterized by a denial of the divinity of Christ and rejection of the Pauline epistles. While they admitted the world to have been made by the true God, they held that Christ was a miraculously endowed man, and rejected Paul as an apostle from the Mosaic Law to the customs and ordinances of which, including circumcision, they steadily adhered. Origen divides the Ebionites into two classes in accordance to their acceptance or rejection of the virgin birth of Jesus, but says that all alike reject the Pauline epistles. Eusebius is of the same opinion. They kept both the Jewish Sabbath and the Christian Lord’s Day. The names Ebionites and Nazarenes both refer to the Jewish Christians of Syria, whose origin is obscure.] who did not believe in the divinity of Christ. Afterwards he was taken prisoner and was led to a statue of Mars, an idolatrous god, to worship it. But a dragon came out from under the image and slew the son of the high priest who attended the altar fire, as well as two tribunes whose servants held the apostle. And the dragon made many people ill. Yet after the apostle’s prayers, the dragon disappeared, and the people became well again. In the seventy-eighth year of his age, because of his preaching, he was nailed to a cross by the unbelievers, like his master was; and so he was made a martyr to Christ. This Philip left two daughters, who were virgins and who were buried beside him, one to his right and one to his left.

Philip the Apostle, was a native of Bethsaida, the city of Peter and Paul (John 1:44), and apparently was among the Galilean peasants of that district who came to hear the preaching of John the Baptist. To him first, in the whole circle of disciples, did Jesus speak the words, "Follow me." (John 1:43). And as soon as he had learned to know his master, he was eager to communicate his discovery to another who had also shared the same expectations. "Philip finds Nathanael, and says to him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. And Nathanael said to him, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip says to him, Come and see. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and says of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!" (John 1:45-47). Philip apparently went with the first company of disciples who accompanied Jesus on his ministry, and he is with the company of disciples at Jerusalem after the Ascension (Acts 1:13) and on the day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain and apocryphal. He is mentioned by Clement of Alexandria as having had a wife and children.

The apocryphal Acta Philippi (‘Acts of Philip’) are utterly wild and fantastic, and if there is any truth in them, it is probably the bare fact that the Apostle or the Evangelist labored in Phrygia and died at Hieropolis. He drew the people there away from the worship of a great serpent. The priest and the proconsul seized on the apostles and tortured them. John suddenly appeared with words of counsel and encouragement. The tortures that Philip had suffered ended in his death. Another tradition represents Scythia as the scene of his labors, and places the guilt for his death on the Ebionites.

Barnabas, one of the seventy-two disciples, and a native of Cyprus, was given to Paul as an associate to preach to the pagans, and at Peter’s command he wandered through the entire Longobardian country, preaching and teaching. He and his disciples converted all Cisalpine Gaul to the Christian faith. He erected the first cathedral at Milan (Mediolanum) and left a bishop there. He returned to Cyprus with the Gospel of Matthew and there he healed many. He earned the crown of martyrdom at Salamina not long before Peter was martyred.[Barnabas was a Levite of Cyprus. He sold his property and placed the proceeds at the disposal of the apostles (Acts 4:36-37). When Paul came to Jerusalem after his conversion, Barnabas introduced him to the other apostles (Acts 9:26-27). Five years afterward the church at Jerusalem, being informed of the progress of the Gospel at Antioch, sent Barnabas there (Acts 11:20-24). He later went to Tarsus to seek Paul and bring him to Antioch where they lived together for two years and made many converts. They left in 45 to convey alms from this church to Jerusalem, but soon returned bringing John and Mark (Acts 11:28-30). They then separated for the labors to which they had been appointed—the planting of new churches among the Gentiles, and thus the missionary cause was instituted. They visited Cyprus and some cities of Asia Minor (Acts 13:2-14). After another three years they returned to Antioch, gathered the church and rehearsed all that God had done by them. They again separated, Paul going to Asia, and Barnabas with Mark to Cyprus. Nothing is known of his subsequent career.]


Seneca, depicted in a large wooden bath tub of the medieval type, is seated in water to the waist. He wears a bath cap resembling a fez. Blood is streaming in fountains from the arteries in his arms, and he appears to be going to sleep in death.


The Martyrdom of the Apostle Philip—a woodcut 4¼" by 5½". The apostle is tied to a T-shaped cross, hand and foot, his feet almost touching the ground. He is fully robed and wears a halo. Two rough looking men in medieval dress are stoning him as he hangs on the cross.