First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Henry (Heinricus), the fifth of this name, son of the aforementioned Henry the Fourth, was elected by the Electors in the Year after the Incarnation of the Lord 1107, while his father still lived; and he reigned 20 years. He pursued his father with war, chiefly at Liege and Cologne. The son proceeded from Aix-la-Chapelle to Liege with an army against his father. And when his men, as a precaution, had taken possession of the bridges over the Mosa, his father’s men came and drove them from the bridges before the son himself arrived there. Then the son turned against those of Cologne, who remained true and obedient to his father. After he had besieged that city for a short time, he captured it with the aid and good will of the archbishop there. Afterwards he installed Bishop Rothardus at Wurzburg, took sureties from the citizens there, and allowed the Saxons to return home. With the Bavarians he appeared before Nuremberg, and after taking the city, he proceeded to Regensburg with his army. His father soon pursued him, and reinstated Bishop Rubertus at Wurzburg, and with the assistance of those at Regensburg he drove his son from there. Then the son once again proceeded to Liege, determined to besiege it until he had captured it. He remained there for four months. In the meantime his father died because of the constraints of mind from which he suffered, and the empire fell into the hands of his son. During the first five years after his father’s death he zealously devoted himself to securing confirmation from the papal see; but Paschal, the pope, was antagonistic toward him because he had undertaken to invest and appoint bishops and other clerical persons in the name of the pope. For when the pope had denied him this authority, he decided to manage these matters with craftiness; and in the sixth year of his reign he proceeded to Etruria with his army, sending his emissaries to the pope in advance to inform him that if the king was admitted to coronation he would take an oath to forego all investitures and clerical appointments, so that all the churches in his realm should exercise their own rights and avail themselves of the immunities of the Blessed Peter, as they had done during the reigns of a number of his predecessors who had been Roman emperors. And so the pope then sent his legates to the king. They received his oath in the form prescribed at Rome. Then King Henry went to Rome; and the Roman people went forth with banners and olive branches to honorably receive him. When the king came to the pope he knelt down to kiss his feet. The pope caused him to be raised up to kiss his mouth. And before he was installed Henry took the imperial oath and obligation, as is the custom, and was named emperor by the pope. Afterwards the pope asked the emperor to give up his claim to investiture; but Henry rose up and made prisoners of Pope Paschal and all the prelates of the church, and distributed all their estates. On the following day the Roman people took to arms and drove the Germans out of Rome. But the emperor burned all the suburbs of Rome, and demanded that the Romans admit him. However, they refused unless he liberate the pope and the clergy. At last matters were peacefully settled, the emperor was confirmed and crowned, and he returned in peace to Germany. He married Matilda (Mathildem), the daughter of the King of England, at Mainz. In the tenth year of his reign he returned to Italy, and received the crown from Maurice (Mauricius), the archbishop; for until then he had not been properly crowned. Finally he surrendered the rights of the churches to Pope Calixtus and the ban was lifted. Later, while roving about the lowlands along the Rhine he contracted an illness and died at Utrecht, in Friesland. He was carried through Cologne to Spire and buried with his ancestors.

Henry V (1081-1125), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Henry IV, was born on January 8th, 1081, and after the deposition of his elder brother, the German king Conrad (d. 1101), was chosen as his successor in 1098. In spite of his oath to take no part in the business of the empire during his father’s lifetime, Henry was induced by his father’s enemies to revolt in 1104, and some of the princes did homage to him at Mainz in January 1106. In August of the same year, the elder Henry died, when his son became sole ruler. In 1107, a campaign to restore Boriwoj II to the dukedom of Bohemia was partially successful, and in the year following the king led his forces into Hungary where he failed to take Pressburg. In 1109, he was unable to compel the Poles to renew their accustomed tribute, but in 1110, he succeeded in securing the dukedom of Bohemia for Ladislaus I.

The main interest of Henry’s reign centers in the controversy over lay investiture which had been thrice prohibited by Paschal II. In 1110, Henry went to Italy with a large army, and at Sutri concluded an arrangement with Paschal by which he renounced the right of investiture in return for a promise of coronation, and the restoration to the empire of all lands given by kings, or emperors, to the German church since the time of Charlemagne. The king presented himself at St. Peter’s on February 12th, 1111, for his coronation and the ratification of the treaty. The words commanding the clergy to restore the fiefs of the Crown to Henry were read amid a tumult of indignation, for which reason the pope refused to crown the king, who in return declined to renounce the right of investiture. Henry left the city carrying the pope with him; and Paschal’s failure to obtain assistance drew from him a confirmation of the king’s right of investiture and a promise to crown him emperor.

In 1112, Lothair, duke of Saxony, rose against Henry, but was easily quelled. In 1113, however, a quarrel over the succession to the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde gave occasion for a fresh outbreak on the part of Lothair, whose troops were defeated at Warnstädt. Having been married in 1114 to Matilda, or Maud, daughter of Henry I of England, the emperor was confronted with a further rising, initiated by the citizens of Cologne, who were soon joined by the Saxons and others. Henry’s forces were defeated at Welfesholz in 1115, and complications in Italy compelled him to leave Germany to the care of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, and his brother Conrad. After the departure of Henry from Rome in 1111, a council declared the privilege of lay investiture, which had been extorted from Paschal, to be invalid and Guido, archbishop of Vienne, excommunicated the emperor, but the pope refused to ratify this sentence. The quarrel entered upon a new stage in 1115, when Matilda, daughter and heiress of Boniface, margrave of Tuscany, died leaving her vast estates to the papacy. Crossing the Alps in 1116, Henry took possession of Matilda’s lands. By this time Paschal had withdrawn his consent to lay investiture and the excommunication had been published. The pope was compelled to fly and the emperor was crowned a second time by Burdinas, archbishop of Braga. Paschal was succeeded by Gelasius II in January 1118, but Henry secured the election of an antipope who took the name of Gregory VIII. Finally, in the concordant of Worms (September 1122), Henry renounced the right of investiture with ring and crozier, recognized the freedom of election of the clergy, and promised to restore all church property. The new pope, Calixtus II, agreed to allow elections to take place in the presence of the imperial envoys, and the investiture with the scepter to be granted by the emperor as a symbol that the estates of the church were held under the Crown. Henry was received again into the communion of the church, after he had abandoned his nominee, Gregory, to defeat. The emperor’s concluding years were occupied with a campaign in Holland, and with a quarrel over the succession to the margravate of Meissen. In 1124, he led an expedition against King Louis VI of France, and turned his arms against the citizens of Worms. He died at Utrecht on May 23rd, 1125.

Anselm (Anshelmus), a bishop of Lucca, a man distinguished for his learning and piety, flourished at this time. He zealously devoted himself to the building of the large monastery of Saint Benedict, outside of Mantua, with funds provided by Matilda (Mathildis).

Anselm (Anshelmum), another of that name, is said to have lived at this time. He was a very learned man, and so highly esteemed among the English that he soon became an abbot, and later archbishop of Canterbury. He wrote many commendable books on various subjects.

Anselm (1033-1109), was born at Aosta in Piedmont and has been called the greatest thinker that ever occupied the throne of Canterbury. At an early age he crossed the Alps, and finally settled in the famous abbey of Bec, where in 1056 he was elected prior, and in 1078, abbot. Under his rule Bec became the first seat of learning in Europe. Anselm several times visited England, where his convent had great estates, and had so won the love of the people that they expected him to succeed Lanfranc in the see of Canterbury. But when Lanfranc died in 1089, William Rufus seized possession and revenues of the see, without making a new appointment. Four years later William fell ill, and in a fit of remorse, forced Anselm to accept the vacant see. Religious controversies between king and archbishop arose, and in 1097, Anselm went to Rome to consult the pope; but the pope would not embroil himself with the king of England, and Anselm withdrew from Rome to the village of Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the atonement, Cur Deus Homo (‘Why God (Became) Man’ or ‘Why God-Man’?), and then retired to Lyons.

In 1100 William was killed and Henry, his successor, at once recalled Anselm. But Henry demanded that he should again receive from him in person investiture in his office of archbishop; but the papal rule forbade all homage and lay investiture. The long struggle which followed continued until 1107, when the king resigned his formal rights. The two years following were spent by Anselm in performing the duties of his bishopric. He died in 1109 and was canonized in 1494 by Alexander VI.

Sigibert, a monk, an ingenious man in all the literary arts, is said to have died at this time.