First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 6293[The wrongly prints the date here as 9293.]

Year of Christ 1094

Paschal (Pascalis), the second pope of this name, an Italian monk from the province of Flamminia whose father was Crescentius and whose mother was Alsacia, was called Ranieri (Raynerius), and was elected pope against his will by the Roman clergy; for he said his shoulders were not ample to carry such a burden. Nevertheless, pursuant to the prayers of the people, his election by the clergy, and to please the cardinals, he accepted the papal office; for he was proclaimed three times. Saint Peter elected Ranieri, a very good man, as pope. Then he was anointed according to custom, and crowned with the papal tiara. Afterwards he determined to help and to guide the churches out of their fallen state, and to elevate them. He sent his people against the antipope, Cibertus. And although he died suddenly, yet the church of God did not secure peace very soon, for Richard, a count of Champagne, established one Albertus as pope; but he was obliged to give up the idea and was exiled. Some others elected one Theodoric as pope; but they rued this, and ejected him from the see on the one hundred and fifth day. Finally, when the Roman Church secured peace and accord, Pope Paschal again received into his power the cities of Castellanum and Beneventum, of which he had been deprived by the enemy. He consecrated 15 churches at Rome, and finally died in the 18th year, 6th month, and 7th day of his pontificate on the fifteenth day of the Kalends of February, and was buried in the Basilica of Constantine.

Paschal II (Ranieri) pope from August 16th, 1099 to January 21st 1118, a native of Beda, near Viterbo, was a Cluniac monk. He was created cardinal-priest of St. Clemente by Gregory VII about 1076, and was consecrated pope as successor to Urban II, on August 14th, 1099. In the long struggle with the emperor over investiture, he zealously adhered to the policy of Hildebrand, but with only partial success. In 1104 he instigated the emperor’s second son to rebel against his father, but soon found Henry V even more persistent in maintaining his right of investiture than Henry IV had been. The imperial Diet at Mainz invited Paschal to visit Germany and settle the trouble, but the pope in the Council of Guastalla simply renewed the prohibition of investiture. In the same year he ended the investiture struggle in England, and at the close of the same year sought in vain the mediation of King Philip and Prince Louis in the imperial struggle; but his negotiations bore no fruit.

When Henry V advanced with an army into Italy in order to be crowned, the pope agreed to a compromise, but the Romans revolted against the compact, and Henry retired, taking with him pope and curia. After 61 days of harsh imprisonment Paschal yielded and guaranteed investiture of to the emperor. Henry was then crowned in St. Peter’s and retired across the Alps. The Hildebrandine party was aroused to action, however, and a Lateran Council of March 1112 declared null and void the concessions extorted by violence from the pope. A council held at Vienne in October actually excommunicated the emperor; and Paschal sanctioned the proceeding. Toward the end of the pontificate trouble began anew in England. On the death of the Countess Matilda, who had bequeathed all her territories to the Church (1115) the emperor at once laid claim to them as the imperial fiefs and forced the pope to flee form Rome. Paschal returned after the emperor’s withdrawal in 1118, but died within a few days. His successor was Gelasius II.

Gelasius II, of Gaeta, previously called John (Ioannes), was born of a noble family. He was nobly reared, and was educated from youth, firstly at Mount Cassino, under Abbot Odrisius, a holy man, devoted to spiritual matters. He was summoned to Rome by Pope Urban the Second, for he was a pious man, worthy of every praise. He lived so piously and with such steadfastness in a time of great turmoil, human temptation, uproar, and distress, that he was elected pope by unanimous consent of all the people. But after Cencius Frangipani (Cincius Fregepanis) had proposed to the Roman clergy one of his cardinals, who, however, failed of election, he became so enraged that he attacked by force of arms the monastery of Palladius, breaking open the door, slaying every man in his course, throwing the pope to the ground, treading upon him, and binding and imprisoning him. He tore the cardinals from their mules and horses, neglecting no mode of humiliation. But the pope was soon released by the Roman people, taken to the Lateran, and crowned according to custom. Being afterwards persecuted by Emperor Henry (Heinrico), he fled to Gaul. There he was honorably and graciously received by the abbot of Cluny. But when, at this monastery he undertook to consider with the kings and princes many things for the good and protection of the church, he was seized with illness in his side, and died in the first year and fifth day of his pontificate. His body was buried within the walls of the monastery of Cluny.[Gelasius II (Giovanni Coniulo), pope form January 24th, 1118 to January 29th, 1119, was born at Gaeta of an illustrious family. He became a monk at Monte Cassino, was taken to Rome by Urban II, and made chancellor and cardinal-deacon of Sta. Maria in Cosmedin. Shortly after his unanimous election to succeed Paschal II, he was seized by Cencius Frangipane, a partisan of the emperor Henry V, but freed by a general uprising of the Romans in his behalf. The emperor drove Gelasius from Rome in March, pronounced his election null and void, and set up Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as antipope under the name of Gregory VIII. Gelasius fled to Gaeta where he was ordained priest on March 9th, and on the following day received Episcopal consecration. He at once excommunicated Henry and the antipope and, under Norman protection, was able to return to Rome in July; but the disturbances of the imperialist party, especially of Frangipane, who attacked the pope while celebrating mass, compelled Gelasius to go into exile again. He set out for France, consecrating the cathedral of Pisa on the way, and arrived at Marseilles in October. He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier, and other cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Cluny. He was succeeded by Calixtus II.]

Year of the World 6313

Year of Christ 1114

Calixtus (Calistus) the Second, formerly called Guido, a Burgundian, and bishop of Vienne, was of royal French, English, and German ancestry. As others state, he was a brother of a Burgundian count. He was elected pope by the cardinals who were then at Cluny, but would not accept the office before he was confirmed by the other cardinals who were at Rome and in Italy. When this occurred he proceeded to Rome, where the people came forth with joy to meet him. And as Roman affairs were now at peace, he went to Beneventum, where the princes came to him, promising, under oath, to submit to the authority of the pope at all times. He then returned to Rome and sent his legates to Emperor Henry (Heinricum). They settled all matters of controversy, and brought back to Rome the treaty of peace that was posted in the Lateran Basilica, to the great joy of the people. This Calixtus held a council of nine hundred fathers at Rome, and in that council he settled many controversies, restoring peace and unity. He admonished Duke Michael of Venice to go to the aid of the Christians at Jerusalem. Finally, well respected by God and by men, he died in the Lord in the fifth year, tenth month, and sixth day of his pontificate.[Calixtus II (d. 1124), pope from 1119 to 1124, was formerly named Guido, a member of a noble Burgundian family, who became archbishop of Vienne about 1088, and belonged to the party which favored reform in the Church. In February 1119, he was chosen pope at Cluny, succeeding Gelasius II, and in opposition to the antipope Gregory VIII, who was in Rome. Soon after his consecration he opened negotiations with the emperor with a view to settling the dispute over investiture. Terms of peace were arranged, but at the last moment difficulties arose and the treaty was abandoned; and in October 1119 both emperor and antipope were excommunicated at a synod held at Reims. The journey of Calixtus to Rome early in 1120 was a triumphal march. He was received with great enthusiasm in the city, while Gregory, having fled to Sutri, was delivered into his hands and treated with great ignominy. Through the efforts of some German princes, negotiations between pope and emperor were renewed, and the important Concordat of Worms made in September 1122 was the result. He died in Rome on December 13th or 14th, 1124.]