First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The Order of the Regular Canons[Until the 16th century the word ‘regular’ (from the Latin regula, a rule) was applied exclusively to the discipline and customs of religious orders bound by a rule, and to their members, who constituted the “regular,” as opposed to the “secular” clergy. Thus, as a substantive, “regular” means a monk or prior; while there were bodies of canons regular and canons secular.], again began to flourish in the church of the Blessed Quentin (Quintini) at Beauvais in the Year of the Lord one thousand eighty, in the time of Pope Gregory the Seventh and Emperor Henry (Heinrici). This Order was first wisely established, with regulations, by the apostles, and later by the Blessed Augustine, bishop and distinguished teacher, under Master Yvo (Yvone), the worthy provost of the church.[The Regular Canons were under the Rule composed by Yvo (Ivo) de Chartres from the writings of Augustine.] Of this Order Hugh (Hugo) of Saint Victor, Richard of St. Victor, and Hugh of Saint Folieto were illustrious.[The church or monastery referred to had just been founded by Guy, bishop of Beauvais, in the city of that name, in honor of St. Quentin.]

Yvo, the highly renowned teacher of ecclesiastical law and bishop of Chartres[Yvo is more generally called bishop of Chartres, one of the principal towns of the Carnutes. The Romans called it ‘Autricum,’ from the river Autura (Eure), and afterwards ‘civitas Carnutum.’ It was burnt by the Normans in 858, and unsuccessfully besieged by them in 911. It was in English hands from 1417 to 1432. It was taken in 1591 by Henry IV, who was crowned there three years afterwards. During the Middle Ages it gave its name to a countship held by the counts of Blois and Champaign, and afterwards by the house of Chatillon, a member of which sold it to the crown in 1286. The modern city of Chartres is the capital of the department of Eure-et-Loir, 55 miles southwest of Paris.], was at this time held in great honor and esteem in Gaul. Among other works and accomplishments of skill, virtue and wisdom (according to Isidore, the Hispalian[Hispalis, Roman name for Seville.] bishop), he made various compilations and extracts from ecclesiastical law and reduced then to book form. He also collected various other worthy things and wrote poems.[Ivo (Yvo, Yves) of Chartres (c. 1040-116), bishop of Chartres, was born of a noble family near Beauvais, and was educated in Paris and at Bec under Lanfranc. About 1080, he became prior of the canons of St. Quentin in Beauvais, and ten years later bishop of Chartres in the place of Geoffrey who had been deposed for simony. His importance as a canonist is apparent from his and his , both composed before 1096. His 288 letters throw much light on the political, religious, and liturgical questions of his day. He wrote a commentary on the Psalms and a collection of canons, .]

Rasi (Rasis), a very distinguished physician, and a Phoenician or African, flourished and was renowned at this time. Some say that his real name was Bachilo. But Avicenna calls him Meantheus. He was reared in the city of Almonsoria, and was there instructed in the Arabic tongue. He edited various celebrated books in Arabia, embracing all the medical learning that existed before his time. He also wrote two books on alchemy and astrology, and many other things.[Rasi, Razi, Latin Rases, Rasis; also Abubater, Albubeter, Bubikir (full name Abu Bekr Mohammed er-Rasi), was the most learned and celebrated of Muslim physicians. He was born in 850 in the Persian city of Rai (from whence his name), and died between 911 and 932. After becoming 30 years of age he went to Baghdad. Until this time he had been known only as a singer and zither-player; but now he turned to medicine. He not only concerned himself with the views of the Greek and Syrian physicians, which he collected, but also enlarged his knowledge through experience with the sick, particularly where new diseases appeared. One of his principal works, , has been esteemed by modern physicians. His reputation during the Middle Ages is due chiefly to his , published in incomplete condition by his students after his death. It is a giant compendium on practical medicine and is rich in material concerning the history of the science. Later writers, like Avicenna, have freely drawn on this work, and have received credit which justly belonged to Rasi.]

Matilda (Mathildis), a very noble countess, and an honorable and illustrious woman, conducted herself well toward the church in these times; and because of her virtue and distinguished conduct she was esteemed and became renowned. Boniface, a very noble and magnanimous man, and Beatrice, Henry’s (Heinrici) daughter, were her parents; and being their only daughter, upon their death she inherited the cities of Lucca, Parma, Reggio, Ferrara, Mantua, etc. For this reason she was of high renown throughout Italy. She married a mighty prince, called Godfried (Gotifredum); and being a brilliant woman, she not only resisted the forces of the dukes of Apuleia and Calabria, but also those of Henry, which were employed against the Roman pope. She compelled them to return to the Church what they had wrested from it. But when Henry, son of Emperor Henry, was sent into Italy by his father, and defeated Matilda and her husband in the city of Parma, and killed Godfried, she married Azzo d’Este, her husband’s friend, who, unbeknown to her, was related to him in the fourth degree. After having lived with him for some months she learned of this relationship, and sought the advice of Pope Gregory as to what might be done about it. The pope commanded her to entirely withhold and withdraw herself from communion with her husband, and afterwards they were divorced. She remained zealously attached to the church by prayers and watchfulness, and died at the age of sixty-nine years, full of good works. Before her death she made a will by which she freed all her servants and maids, and then sent all her golden vessels, silverware, and costly raiment to the church. She also endowed many churches and cloisters with innumerable estates, and gave her entire inheritance to St. Peter’s. With devotion and honor she finally received the Sacrament of Christ, commending her soul to God. Her body was honorably buried in a casket that may still be seen.[Matilda (1046-1115), countess or margravine of Tuscany, popularly known as the Great Countess, descended from a noble Lombard family. Her great-grandfather, Athone of Canossa, had been made count of Modena and Reggio by the emperor Otto I, and her grandfather had, in addition, acquired Mantua, Ferrara, and Brescia. Her own father, Boniface II, the Pious, secured Tuscany, the duchy of Spoleto, the county of Parma, and probably that of Cremona; and was loyal to the emperor until Henry plotted against him. Through the murder of Count Boniface in 1052, and the death of her older brother and sister three years later, Matilda was left, at the age of nine, sole heiress to the richest estate in Italy. She received an excellent education under the care of her mother Beatrice, daughter of Frederick of Lorraine, and aunt of Henry II, who, after a brief detention in Germany by the emperor, married Godfrey IV of Lorraine, brother of Stephen IX, he pope. Matilda cast her lot against the emperor in the great struggle over investiture, maintaining the cause of successive popes for over thirty years. She attended the synod at which Guibert was condemned and deprived of the archbishopric of Ravenna. Her hereditary fief of Canossa, on January 28th, 1077, was the scene of the celebrated penance of Henry IV before Gregory VII. The donation of her estates to the Holy See, originally made in 1077 and renewed in 1102, though never fully consummated on account of temporal dominion of the papacy. Matilda was twice married, first to Godfrey V of Lorraine, surnamed the Hunchback, and secondly to the 17-year old Welf V of Bavaria, from whom she separated in 1095. Matilda was an eager student, spoke Italian, French and German, wrote Latin, collected a considerable library, and supervised an edition of the of Justinian. She died in 1115, was buried in the Benedictine church at Polirone, from where her remains were taken to St. Peter’s at Rome in 1635.]

Guibert (Gibertus), who was elected pope against Gregory by Emperor Henry (Heinrico), and as previously stated, was called Clement, proceeded to Rome with Emperor Henry and his son and their army, and soon captured the Leonine City. Finally, after many deeds, he died a sudden death, a fitting penalty for his misdeeds.[Guibert (also Wibert; in Latin Gibertus), anti-pope as Clement III; see text and note on Henry IV, Folio CXCII recto, above.]