First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Henry (Heinricus) the Fourth, son of the aforesaid Henry the Third, while still a boy, was elected future king and emperor by the electors upon the death of his father in the Year of the Lord 1057; and he reigned for 48 years or, as others have it, fifty (years). After his father’s death he was under the guardianship of his mother, Empress Agnes (Agnetis), who for some time ruled the empire wisely and in peace. Later, through the misguidance of his people, Henry ignored his mother and became estranged from her, and this was the reason and the seed of great dissensions. The queen, a woman devoted to the service of God, did not want to become involved in secular affairs, and she chose a spiritual life in a cloister. For devotional reasons she later went to Rome, and there performed many good and virtuous works until her holy end. She was buried in the Church of the Blessed Peter beside the altar of Blessed Petronella. This victorious Emperor Henry, who was crowned at Rome, returned homeward with his army, passing through Apuleia. For a long time he was worthy of renown, just, sharp-witted, generous in the giving of alms, and a very fortunate prince in military affairs. Toward the end of his sovereignty, however, he suffered opposition in his dealings on the part of the princes and at the hands of his own son. To enjoy the freedom of his youth he went to Saxony to live; but after he decided to oppress nobility, and became more addicted to the chase and sports than to the cares of government, the Saxons began to disrespect him; and they reported many things against him to the pope. Then Henry left Saxony, undertaking to rule other regions of the empire. He also considered how he might reduce the power of the pontiff; for this reason he made Cadalus, bishop of Parma, pope. Out of this arose much mischief and bloodshed. While these matters arose in Italy, Henry made war on the Saxons, defeating them; but not without suffering on his side; for he lost five thousand of his men at arms. Because of this victory he became so proud that he undertook many unseemly things against the pope. First, he attempted to withdraw from obedience to the pope; and he ordered Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, to convene a council at Worms. At this council the bishops and abbots of the empire were admonished not to regard Gregory as pope. For this reason Gregory deposed these bishops from their churches, forbade Henry the exercise of his sovereignty, title and office, and, by virtue of his papal authority, absolved all princes and the people from the allegiance which they were accustomed to extend to the said Henry. Then many prelates, princes, and people, and a large part of the Germans, became estranged from said Henry. The Saxons were the first to make war against him, and thus Henry was compelled humbly to ask pardon of the pope. And the pope restored him to the peace of Mother Church. After vowing to keep the peace, Henry went to Pavia. But he soon violated it, making fresh attempts to depose Gregory. He called a council, made Gibertus, archbishop of Ravenna, pope, under the name of Clement. In a spirit of enmity he took Clement to Rome, and besieged Gregory in the Castle Angelo. Then Guiscard, duke of Apuleia, came to the aid of Gregory; and Henry, with his pope Clement, returned to Germany, and besieged the city of Augsburg. Later, in the year 1099 at Aix-la-Chapelle he made his young son king as Henry the Fifth. In the sixth year this son quarreled with his father, and defeated him at Liege. It is said that prior to this Henry no emperor was excommunicated by the pope.After his death Henry the Fourth was buried, first at Liege, but was later taken to Spire. There he remained unburied for five years, but was finally given honorable interment.

Henry IV (1050-1106), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Henry III, and Agnes, daughter of William V, duke of Guienne, was born in 1050, chosen German king in 1053, crowned in 1054, appointed duke of Bavaria on his father’s death in 1055, and in 1056 inherited the kingdoms of Germany, Italy, and Burgundy. They were governed in his name by his mother, who in 1062 was compelled to hand over control to the bishops of Cologne and Bremen. In March 1065 Henry was declared of age, and in the following year married Bertha, daughter of Otto, count of Savoy.

Henry led expeditions into Saxony and quarreled with the dukes of Swabia and Carinthia. He aroused the hostility of the Thüringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz in his efforts to exact tithes from them. In 1073 they jointed the Saxons, and the struggle for fifteen years which followed, exercised an important influence on Henry’s misfortune elsewhere. He was compelled by the Saxon rebellion to come to amicable terms with the pope, with whom he was also at enmity, and who had excommunicated him and absolved his subjects from allegiance. The excommunication produced a profound impression both in Germany and in Italy, and there was a general revulsion of sentiment in favor of Gregory. The princes of the empire met at Tribur, and Henry was saved from the loss of his scepter only by their failure to agree on a successor. They settled that, if, on the anniversary of his excommunication, Henry still lay under the ban, the throne should be considered vacant. Henry wisely went to Italy in person and did penance before Gregory at Canossa; and although reconciliation was effected after prolonged negotiations, the great questions, notably that of investiture, still remained unsettled.

Henry left Italy to find that in his absence Rudolph, duke of Swabia, had been chosen German king; and although Hildebrand (Gregory VII) had taken no part in this election, Henry sought to prevent the pope’s journey to Germany, and tried to recover his former position. Though supported by most of the German bishops and by the Lombards, and recognized in Burgundy, Bavaria, and Franconia, Henry suffered defeat in 1078 and again in 1080. Gregory’s attitude remained neutral, in spite of appeals from both sides, until March 1080, when he again excommunicated Henry. At Henry’s initiative, Gregory was deposed on three occasions, and an anti-pope was elected in the person of Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna, who took the name of Clement III.

The duke Rudolf, rival German king, died in October 1080, and this left Henry at liberty to go to Italy early in 1081. Attempts at reconcilement with the pope failed, and, in March 1084, Gregory was declared deposed and Clement was recognized by the Romans. In the same month Henry was crowned by Clement, and received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the fortresses still in the hands of the pope, but the advance of Robert Guiscard, duke of Apuleia, compelled him to return to Germany.

Meanwhile, the German rebels had chosen a fresh anti-king, Hermann, count of Luxemburg. In 1086 Henry was defeated near Würzburg, but Hermann abandoned the struggle, and the emperor was generally recognized in Saxony. Although Henry’s power was in the ascendant, a few powerful nobles adhered to the cause of the new pope, Urban II. Among them was Welf, son of the deposed duke of Bavaria, whose marriage with Matilda of Tuscany rendered him formidable. The emperor therefore returned to Italy in 1090, where Mantua and Milan were taken, and Pope Clement was restored to Rome.

Henry’s first wife died in 1087 and he remarried in 1089. The conduct of his second wife aroused suspicion, which was also directed against his eldest son Conrad, who had been crowned German king in 1087. The papal party induced Conrad to desert his father, and to be crowned king of Italy in 1093. After five years of inactivity Henry returned to Germany, where his position was stronger than ever. A diet assembled at Mainz in 1098 deposed Conrad and chose the emperor’s second son Henry (afterwards Emperor Henry V) as German king. But the younger Henry, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, decided he owed no allegiance to an excommunicated father, and in 1105 the emperor became a prisoner in the hands of his son. A diet at Mainz compelled him to abdicate. He escaped to Cologne, and entered into negotiations with England, France and Denmark. He was engaged in collecting an army when he died at Liege on August 7th, 1106.

After a licentious youth, Henry displayed much diplomatic ability. His abasement at Canossa may be regarded as a move of policy to weaken the pope’s position at the cost of a personal humiliation to himself. He was a friend of the lower orders, capable of generosity, and possessed military skill.

Rudolph, duke of Saxony, was elevated to the kingship in consequence of the aforesaid Henry’s (Heinricus) breach of the peace and reverses at Pforzheim; and he was anointed as king in mid-lent by Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz. Henry desired first of all that the pope drive Rudolf from the empire by excommunication; but as he could not induce the pope to do this, both sides resorted to arms, and fought three severe battles. And although the pope sent his special messengers to Germany for the purpose of settling the controversy, Henry would not consent unless Rudolf was excommunicated by papal authority. Therefore Henry, with force of arms, proceeded into Saxony against Rudolf. Rudolf engaged him with three wagon-fortresses, and they fought one another for the fourth time. Rudolf was accidentally wounded by his own men. Henry was lost in flight, and was not found until seven days later. Rudolf, having died from his wounds, was buried at Merseburg.