First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

A wicked sorceress, who lived in England, died; and while the priests were singing the Psalm, she was terribly pulled about by the Devil, who set her on a horrible horse and rode through the air with her; and for fully four miles a fearful and terrifying cry was heard.

In the time of Henry (Heinrici) the Third the Church of the Glorious Resurrection at Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by the Arabs, was rebuilt. For after the power of the Egyptians began to prevail over the Persians, the Egyptians, before the advent of the Turks, possessed all the territory from Egypt to Antioch, including the holy city of Jerusalem and the adjacent country. Afterwards Caliphas, the governor, a bad man hated by God and men, undertook among others of his misdeeds to level the said Church of the Resurrection to the ground. This occurred in the year 1018 after the Incarnation of the Lord, while Herestus, a good man, and brother of the said tyrant’s mother, presided over the said church. From this point Christian customs, through bitter pains and according to many signs, turned to evil. After the death of this tyrant, his son, at the solicitation of the Constantinopolitans, began to show himself a good man, and he gave the faithful authority to rebuild the church. When the funds of the Christians at Jerusalem proved insufficient to rebuild the church, they appealed to the emperor at Constantinople for assistance. He personally advanced the money; and so the Christians with fiery zeal rebuilt the Church of the Holy Resurrection in the year 1098 after the Incarnation of the Lord.[The Church of the Holy (or Glorious) Resurrection is today best known as The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It is a Christian church within the Old City of Jerusalem. The church is venerated by Christians as being built over Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), where Jesus was crucified, and is said to also contain the place where Jesus was buried (the sepulchre).]

Campanus, a very distinguished teacher and a very great astronomer, who was held in high esteem at this time, wrote about various things with great courage, and particularly the things established by Ptolemy, the astronomer, interpreting them and adding his own observations and his reasons for that purpose.[Johannes Campanus (1220-1296) was an Italian astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician who served under both Pope Urban IV and Pope Boniface VIII. His travels to Arabia and Spain allowed him access to lost ancient Greek works in Arabic translation. In 1260 he published a Latin edition of Euclid’s , in fifteen books based on an Arabic translation of the original Greek text, though he probably also had access to the Latin translation of Euclid’s work executed around 1120 by Adelard of Bath. ]

Guido, a very highly renowned master of song, and a native of the city of Arezzo, enjoyed high praise at this time; and, as the learned know, made beautiful and masterly observations and established rules in the art of music.

Guido of Arezzo (c. 990-1050), a musician who lived in the 11th century is also known as Guido Aretinus, Fra Guittone, and Guy of Arezzo. He has been called the father of modern music, the musicians of his time applying to him the somewhat comprehensive phrase Beatus Guido inventor musicae (‘Blessed Guido, inventor of music’). At his first appearance in history, Guido was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Pomposa, where he taught singing and invented his educational method, by means of which, according to his own statement, a pupil might learn in five months what formerly would have taken him ten years to acquire. Envy and jealousy, however, drove him from the monastery, and he went to live at Arezzo, where about 1030, he received an invitation to Rome from Pope John XIV. The pope himself became his first and apparently one of his most proficient pupils. There is no question about the importance of his musical reforms and innovations. He for the first time systematically used the lines of the staff, and the intervals or ‘spatia’ between them. There is also little doubt that the first six notes of the scale, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, still in use in France and Italy, were introduced by him. They were derived from the first syllables of six lines of a hymn addressed to John the Baptist, the initial notes of each line of which happened to form the scale, C, D, E, F, G, A.

In addition, Guido is generally credited with the introduction of the F clef and with writings on music which are amply sufficient to account for the high esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries. The term ‘si’ was not used till the 17th century, when LeMaire introduced it as a name for the 7th note of the scale.

Hugo, abbot of Cluny, renowned for his learning, noble birth, goodness, and piety, at this time wrote various praiseworthy and valiant things.

Lanfranc, native of Pavia, and a distinguished teacher, and master of Anselm, the distinguished teacher, was at this time highly renowned in Gaul and Paris. Through the influence of the Holy Spirit he left school, returned to his home, gave all his possessions to the poor, and served God with great humility throughout his life. Afterwards he became archbishop of Canterbury, and accomplished much good in the English churches.[Lanfranc (d. 1089), archbishop of Canterbury, was born in the 11th century at Paris, where his father Hanbold was a magistrate. Lanfranc studied law, and tradition linked him with Irnerius of Bologna as a pioneer in the renaissance of Roman law. After his father’s death he crossed the Alps to found a school in France. About 1039 he became master of the cathedral school at Avranches, where he taught for three years. In 1042 he entered the newly founded house of Bec, and lived there in absolute seclusion until 1045, when he was persuaded to open his school in the monastery. His pupils were drawn from many parts of Europe and attained to high positions in the church. One of these, Anselm, of Badagio, became pope as Alexander II. Lanfranc’s favorite subjects were logic and dogmatic theology. Against Berengar of Tours, he defended the doctrine of transubstantiation, although Berengar had been his personal friend. He also became a political force. He was nominated to the English primacy in 1070, and in the domestic affairs of England he sought to extricate the church from the fetters of the State and of secular interests. His influence shaped the famous ordinance separating the ecclesiastical from the clerical courts. On the death of William the Conqueror he secured the succession of William Rufus in spite of the discontent of the Anglo-Norman baronage. He died in 1089.]

Theobald, also a noble Frenchman and spiritual man, was held in great veneration at this time on account of his learning and piety. He also wrote and compiled various things.[This may refer to Theobald (d. 1161), an archbishop of Canterbury, of Norman parentage, the date of whose birth is unknown. Early in life he entered the abbey of Bec, of which he became prior in 1127, and an abbot ten years later. In 1138 he became archbishop of Canterbury. Theobald died April 18th, 1161. In history Theobald lives chiefly as the patron of three eminent men: Becket, who began life as a clerk in his household; Master Vacarius, the Italian jurist, who was the first to teach Roman law in England; and John of Salisbury, the learned scholar. Theobald’s household was a little university, and in it were trained many leading prelates of the next generation.]

Hermann, the Lame, also a cleric, was a native of Germany (Alemannus), and a man of extraordinary intelligence and highly experienced in divine matters. He wrote many valiant songs of praise, and particularly the Salve Regina, in honor of the Virgin Mary. He also wrote many other excellent and artistic things.[Hermann of Reichenau, commonly distinguished as Hermannus Contractus, i.e., the Lame (1013-1054), German scholar and chronicler, became a monk of the famous abbey of Reichenau, exercising a great personal and intellectual influence on the scholars that gathered about him. Besides the ordinary monastic studies he devoted himself to mathematics, astronomy and music, and constructed watches and various instruments. He is sometimes credited with the composition of the Latin hymns , , and .]


The Devil carrying off a Sorceress. Satan, in the nude, with two sets of horns – one of a bull, the other of a ram – growing from his forehead, a monster for knee and talons for feet, is carrying off a horse with flaming tail, a sorceress (also in the nude, except for a flowing drape) mounted behind him. The event occurred while the priests were singing a Psalm at the funeral of the woman.