First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
Genealogy of Saint Henry The Emperor

An entire page is devoted to this subject, and the text in explanation of the woodcut follows on Folios CLXXXVII recto and verso. The scheme is that of a family tree, with the first ancestor at the root.

By a series of campaigns Charlemagne reduced the Saxons to such an extent that before his death Saxony had permanently passed under Frankish supremacy, and within a century it had come to form an outpost of German and Christian influence against the Slavs of the provinces south of the Baltic. The conversion of the Saxons to Christianity continued in the reign of Louis I, third son of Charlemagne, and bishoprics were established in various places. In 843, Saxony fell to Louis the German, third son of the emperor Louis I. Louis the German paid little attention to the northern part of his kingdom, which was harassed by the Normans and Slavs. About 850, however, he appointed a Saxon noble named Liudolf as margrave to defend the Limes Saxoniae, a narrow strip of land on the eastern frontier. Liudolf, who is sometimes called duke of the East Saxons, carried out a vigorous war against the Slavs and extended his influence over other parts of Saxony. It is with him that this genealogy begins at its root.

  1. Liudolf (Leutolfus primus dux et rex Saxonie), is portrayed as king, crowned, and holding a large sword. Beside him is his queen. He died in 866, and was succeeded by his son Bruno, and later by his second son, Otto the Illustrious.
  2. Bruno (Bruno dux periit in aquis Danue), eldest son of Liudolf, succeeded his father as duke of Saxony in 866, but was killed fighting the Normans in 880. He is portrayed as a young man, sword in hand, and without issue.
  3. Otto the Illustrious (Otto dux Saxonie), Liudolf’s second son, was recognized as duke of Saxony after the death of his brother Bruno, and is represented in the woodcut (lower right), in ducal cap and with sword in hand. He is accompanied by his spouse.

    Note: The shield shown in connection with Liudolf and his sons Bruno and Otto is that of Saxony. Over a field of 9 horizontal bars, alternately black and gold, is imposed an oblique foliated green bar, its upper edge, only, ornamented with crown-like leaves; which green bar is called the Rautenkranz.

    Of this marriage two children were born, Henry the Fowler (here called the Humble) and a daughter named Baba.

  4. Baba (Baba comitissa Babenberge), daughter of Otto the Illustrious, is shown just above him, with her spouse. It is to her that the chronicler attributes the origin of the name Babenberg. She was the mother of Count Albrecht and, according to the illustration, of Count Reinoldus.
  5. Albrecht of Babenberg (Albertus comes Babebergensis), appears on the right just above his mother Baba. According to the Chronicle (Folio CLXXIV recto), this Albrecht, grandson of Otto the Illustrious, slew Conrad, the son of Louis III, for which offense Louis, then emperor, besieged Albrecht in the castle of Babenberg and finally caused him to be beheaded; and since Louis then died without issue, Conrad, the son of the slain Conrad, was placed in the sovereignty; but when he also died without issue, Henry the Fowler was crowned, as appears later on in this genealogy.
  6. Reinhold (Reinoldus Comes), who appears besides Albrecht as another son of Baba, remains unaccounted for in the text, and apparently died without issue.

    Note: The shield shown in connection with Baba, Albrecht, and Reinhold is that of the house of Babenberg—a black lion in a field of gold; the whole crossed by a bar of silver.

  7. Henry the Fowler (Henricus primus rex Germanie). Henry I, called the “Fowler,” who appears in the lower center of the woodcut, crowned and with lance in hand, was the son of Otto the Illustrious (No. 3 above), and upon the latter’s death in 912 became the duke of Saxony. In 918, the German king, Conrad I, advised the nobles to make the Saxon duke his successor, and in 919 the Franks and Saxons chose Henry as German king. His authority, save in Saxony, was merely nominal; but he secured a recognition of his sovereignty from the Bavarians and Swabians. He was married twice, the first time to Hatburg, a daughter of Irwin, count of Merseburg. She took the veil on the death of a former husband and the church declared her union with Henry illegal. Of this issue was born Thankmar, who was excluded from the succession as illegitimate. Henry’s second marriage was to Matilda, daughter of the Saxon count Thiedrich; and of this marriage three children were born: Otto, afterwards called the Great; Henry, duke of Bavaria, and Bruno, bishop of Cologne.

    Note: The shield of Henry the Fowler is quartered, the royal eagle appearing in the upper left and lower right, and the arms of the house of Saxony in the upper right and lower left.

  8. Thankmar (Danckmerus dux Saxonie) appears to the left of his father, Henry the Fowler. He was not recognized in the succession for the reasons already stated (See No. 7 above.). Below him is the shield of Saxony.
  9. Bruno (Bruno episcopus Coloniensis), the youngest son of Henry the Fowler by his second wife Matilda, appears on the same branch as Thankmar, Henry’s son by his first wife. Bruno is portrayed in Episcopal vestments, crozier in one hand, and sword in the other. Below him is the coat of arms of his bishopric—a black cross in a silver field.
  10. Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (Heinricus dux Bavarie), born about 920 (died November 1st, 955), was the second son of Henry the Fowler by his wife Matilda (Otto, mentioned later, being the first). He headed an insurrection against his brother Otto I, claiming a superior right to the throne, but was defeated in 939 and compelled to leave Germany. Later he attempted to assassinate Otto I, but the plot was discovered, and Henry finally pardoned. He is here portrayed with his spouse. The shield is that of Bavaria, wafered or checkered in silver and blue. The portrait is inscribed Henricus dux Bavaria.
  11. Otto I, the Great (Otto primus imperator), born November 23rd, 912 (died 973), Roman emperor, was the eldest son of King Henry I, the Fowler, by his second wife Matilda. He was chosen German king in 936, and was crowned Roman emperor in 962. He is portrayed with his queen, Adelaide, the mother of Otto II, who succeeded his father to the throne. The shield is that of the German emperor, the double eagle in black on a field of gold.
  12. Otto II (Otto secundus imperator), surnamed the Red, son of the emperor Otto the Great, was chosen German king in 961, and crowned joint emperor at Rome in 967. He is here portrayed with his queen Theophano, and is apparently passing the scepter to her. Theophano was the daughter of the eastern emperor Romanus II. Of this marriage Otto III was born. Below the emperor is the imperial shield— a double eagle in black on a field of gold.
  13. Otto III (Otto trius imperator), son of Otto II, was born in July 980, and at the age of three was chosen successor to his father. During his minority the government of Germany was in the hands of his mother, Theophano, and after her death in 991, passed to a council in which the chief influence was exercised by Adelaide, the widow of Otto the Great, and Willigis, archbishop of Mainz. Otto died in 1002 while conducting a campaign against the Romans. The shield is that of the German emperor, a double eagle in black on a field of gold. He was succeeded by Henry II, son of Henry II the Quarrelsome, Duke of Bavaria, who was a son of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (No. 10 above).
  14. Henry II, the Quarrelsome, Duke of Bavaria (Henricus dux Bavarie) is portrayed with his spouse (left center) and below him is the wafered or checkered shield of Bavaria. Of this marriage was born Henry II, Roman emperor, Bruno, who became bishop of Augsburg, and Gisela, who married Stephen, king of Hungary.
  15. Henry II, Roman Emperor (Sanctus Heinricus imperator), son of Henry the Quarrelsome, and the subject of this genealogy, appears in the upper left-hand corner in crown and regal robes, sainted. He holds a model of the cathedral church of Bamberg which he founded, while at his left is his coat of arms as Roman emperor, the double eagle in black, on a field of gold. On the breast of the eagle is the checkered or wafered shield of Bavaria. Henry II was a great grandson of the German king, Henry I. He became duke of Bavaria on his father’s death in 995, and in 1001 married Kunigunde, daughter of Siegfried, count of Luxemburg. When Otto III (No. 13 above) died childless in 1002, Henry was chosen German king. He was crowned emperor in 1014.
  16. Gisela (Geisila regina Ungarie), daughter of Henry the Quarrelsome and sister of Henry II the emperor, is portrayed with her husband, King Stephen of Hungary. Both are crowned and sainted and each carries a scepter. Beside Gisela is a quartered shield. Upper left and lower right quarters are the Bavarian checkered or wafered fields of blue and gold; upper right and lower left fields bear the silver double cross on a red field. Beside King Stephan is his coat of arms as King of Hungary—a vertically divided field; left half eight horizontal bars, alternately red and silver; to the right, the silver double-cross of Hungary, in a red field.
  17. Bruno, bishop of Augsburg (Bruno episcopus Augustensis), son of Henry the Quarrelsome, and brother of St. Henry the Emperor, and Gisela, the queen of Hungary, is portrayed in Episcopal vestments and holds a crozier. Before him is a quartered shield. Upper left and lower right quarters, the checkered or wafered arms of Bavaria in silver and blue; upper right and lower left quarters, a mounted cluster of grapes, superimposed on a vertically divided field of red and silver, the coat of arms of the city of Augsburg.
  18. Emeric, or Imer (S. Emericus dux Ongarie), duke of Hungary, was born to St. Stephen and Gisela in 1004. His education was entrusted to monks. When his father had restored peace and had resolved to lay aside the chief cares of government, Emeric was twenty-four years of age. Plans were made for his coronation, but he died six days before the appointed time. He appears in the upper right hand corner of the illustration, accompanied by the same shield as that of his mother.