First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Otto II, an emperor, whom Otto the Great, his father, made co-ruler of the empire, and who, together with his spouse Theophano (Theophania), was crowned by the pope in the Lateran Church, began his reign alone in the Year of the Lord 975. He was a good man and a defender of the Roman Church. Before he became emperor he gave peace to the Greeks, and took in marriage Theophano, the sister of John, the Constantinopolitan emperor. Now after he had received the imperial crown, and returned from Italy to Germany, after the death of his father, he experienced hostility on the part of Duke Henry (Heinricum) of Bavaria, whom he soon reduced to submission. While Emperor Otto was at war with Henry, Lothair (Lotharius), king of the Franks, with a large army invaded Lorraine, which then belonged to the Roman empire; and he proceeded to Aix and devastated the countryside. In response Emperor Otto raised an army in Bavaria, and proceeded into France as far as Paris, setting fire to the suburbs. On his return he sustained some losses. Later, with a large army, he marched into Italy against the Greek emperors Basil and Constantine, who had captured Calabria and other parts of Italy. But Otto was defeated, and during his flight a pirate ship carried him to Sicily without his being recognized. In Sicily, however, he was known, and he promised the Sicilians a large sum of money if they would return him to Rome; and this they did. Upon his return to Rome he diligently assembled his scattered forces; but lack of support on the part of his troops prevented him from proceeding against the Romans whom he regarded as responsible for his defeat; so he turned his wrath upon the Beneventans, capturing their city and setting it on fire. He translated the remains of Saint Bartholomew from Beneventum to Rome. He died and was buried with great honors. He left surviving his son Otto III, named as his successor in the sovereignty, and Adalisia, his daughter, wife of the margrave Alaranus of Montiferrati.

Otto II (955-983), Holy Roman emperor, was the son of Otto the Great by his second wife, Adelaide. He was chosen German king at Worms in 961, and crowned joint emperor by Pope John XIII at Rome in 967. In 972 he married Theophano, daughter of the eastern emperor Romanus II, and after sharing in various campaigns in Italy, returned to Germany and became sole emperor on the death of his father in 973. After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably due to Otto’s refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II, the Quarrelsome, Duke of Bavaria. The first conspiracy was easily suppressed, and in 974, the attempt of the Danes to throw off the German yoke was also successfully resisted; but an expedition against the Bohemians, led by the king in person in 975, was a partial failure owing to the outbreak of further trouble in Bavaria. In 976 Otto deposed Duke Henry, restored order for a second time in Lorraine, and made another expedition into Bohemia in 977, when King Boleslas II promised to return to his former allegiance. Having crushed an attempt by Henry to regain Bavaria, Otto was suddenly attacked by Lothair, king of France, who held Aix in his possession for several days. But when the emperor retaliated by invading France, he met with little resistance. He was, however, compelled by sickness among his troops, to raise the siege of Paris, and on the return journey the rearguard of his army was destroyed and the baggage seized by the French. An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France, when Lothair renounced Lorraine.

The emperor then prepared for a journey to Italy. In Rome, where he restored Pope Benedict VII, he held a splendid court. He was next required to punish the Saracens for their inroads into the Italian mainland, and in 981 he marched into Apuleia, where he at first met with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and Eastern Europe, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apuleia, resulted in a severe defeat of Otto’s troops near Stilo in 982. Without revealing his identity the emperor escaped on a Greek vessel to Rosano. At a diet held at Verona, largely attended by German and Italian princes, a fresh campaign was arranged against the Saracens. Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV. Just as the news reached him of a general rising of the tribes on the eastern frontier of Germany, he died in his palace at Rome in 983.

Bruno, bishop of Cologne, brother of Otto I, was held in great esteem for the piety of his life. At great expense he founded the monastery of the Blessed Panthelon at Cologne. Through the efforts of this bishop the remains of Elisius (Elysii) and Patroclus, together with the staff of Saint Peter, were brought from Rome to Cologne.[Bruno, archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine, third son of King Henry I, and brother of Emperor Otto I, was born in 925 at Reims. He was reared at Utrecht for the clergy, and as early as 940 was appointed imperial chancellor by Otto I. He brought order to the chancery and to a higher plain. While engaged in improving his own knowledge he instructed young clerics in person. In 951 he accompanied his brother to Italy, and faithfully remained at his side in battle. In 953 he was appointed archbishop of Cologne, and the following year was made duke of Lorraine to supplant the deposed Conrad who had revolted against his father-in-law, the emperor. Bruno’s struggle to overcome the unruly nobles of Lorraine was a very long one. He supported Otto in his imperial rule, and was very influential in Episcopal appointments. He died at Rheims in 965. Bruno was a well-informed statesman, and exercised an important influence upon the education of the clergy.]

Odilo (Odiolo), who succeeded Majolo, the pious abbot of Cluny, flourished at this time and was illustrious for his virtues. For sixteen years he governed the monastery. He was the first to found, in Burgundy, a day in commemoration of all the dead, following the day of All Saints; and which was afterward confirmed by Pope John XVI, and ordered to be observed by all the churches. He returned his blessed spirit to God in the Year of Incarnation 1048 on the night of circumcision.

Odilo, was born at Clermont in 962, and was abbot of Cluny in 994. He spread the reforms and rules of the order over almost all the monasteries in France, Italy, and Spain, and founded the feast of All Souls that is celebrated on November 2nd, the day after the feast of All Saints by which the saints and martyrs are commemorated. On the day of All Souls special concession is made for the souls of all the faithful departed.

The “night of circumcision” is also known as The Feast of the Circumcision, a Christian celebration on the eighth day after the birth of Jesus (January 1) of the circumcision of Jesus.

Edward (Eduardus), the king of the English, reigned at this time, and was illustrious for his piety. He was slain through the cunning and envy of his stepmother. As a martyr he was illustrious for his miracles.[Edward, “The Martyr” (c. 963-978), king of England, was the son of Edgar by his first wife Aethelflaed. Edgar’s second wife Aelftryth desired to obtain the crown for her son Athelred, but Dunstan upheld Edward’s claim, and he was crowned at Kingston in 975. Edwards’s brief reign was marked by an anti-monastic reaction. There seems also to have been an attempt to bring the Danes into more direct dependence on the crown by the banishment of Oslac, Earl of Northumbria. In ecclesiastical matters there were two parties in the kingdom, the monastic and anti-monastic, but nothing definite seems to have been decided as to the merit of either. In 978 Edward was assassinated, the crime probably being inspired by his stepmother, who was anxious to secure the succession to Wareham, but later transferred to Shaftsbury. Very shortly after his death Edward was popularly esteemed to be both saint and martyr.]

Alpharabius (Alpharahium), a native of Arabia, and a distinguished philosopher, wrote many good works in these times.

Alpharabius (Alfarabi, or Farabi), Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ul-Farabi, (c. 870-950), one of the great Arabian philosophers, was born of Turkish stock at Farab, Turkistan. He learned Arabic and studied mathematics, medicine, and philosophy at Baghdad. Later he went to the court of Hamdanid Saif Addaula, where he lived a quiet life. He died at Damascus.

Alfarabi’s philosophy, which greatly influenced Avicenna and Averroes, is colored with Neoplatonism. God, the unmoved mover possessing necessary existence and absolute perfection, produces the world by the intermediary of the active intellect. As far as man is concerned, this active intellect is the final form and the only immortal part. Alfarabi’s epistemology is a naïve realism. By his commentaries he introduced Aristotle to the Arabs. He was also a great musician and wrote a work upon that subject. In all he wrote over one hundred manuscripts, of which only a small number have come down to us.

Louis (Ludovicus) the Fourth, a king of the Franks, and the last of the line of Charles the Great, reigned over the Franks after Lothair (Lotharium). Then followed Hugh (Hugoni), a very strong, knightly man; and Blanca, his spouse, by whom he had no male heir, took over the sovereignty upon Hugh’s death. This line still reigns in France to this day.[Louis IV; see note to Otto I, Folio CLXXIX recto.]

Theobald, Count of Canusius, of the city of Reggio, a man renowned for his intelligence and celebrated for his writings, was given the city of Ferraria in recognition of his services by Pope John.