First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Magdeburg (Magdeburga), a capital city of Saxony, lies on the river Elbe. This river has its source in the Bohemian mountains. It divides Bohemia and Moravia, and runs directly through the provinces. It first flows westward, then to the north, and proceeds through narrow mountains, running swiftly downward into Saxony, passing the city of Magdeburg, and flowing from there down into the sea. Since the Romans never went beyond the Elbe (as Strabo writes), some have fixed upon this river as the boundary between Germany and Sarmatia[Sarmatia = Poland.]. This city, honored as the seat of emperors and bishops, is divided into three districts, and is fortified and protected by battlements, bow-windows, towers, and moats; and is adorned with magnificent stately edifices, beautiful streets, and large and beautiful churches. A noble bishopric was founded there by the emperor Charles. After he had ended the war against the Lombards and taken their mighty king prisoner, he returned to Gaul; for the Saxon war necessitated his return homeward. The Saxons were a mighty people, and of all the Germans the most warlike. They worshipped false gods, and neither had in view the divine nor the human law. They despised the equality and fairness of our divine worship and faith, as well as the servants of God. They were neighbors of the French, with whom they were continually at war. The task of combating and overcoming them would appear to have been assigned to Charlemagne by divine Providence. He never conducted a greater, more severe or extensive war during a period of thirty-three years than this one against the Saxons; but finally they were so completely defeated that they gave themselves into his power, with all their possessions, submitted to just laws, abandoned their native customs and false gods, acknowledged the Christian faith; and for all these things they gave hostages. In all his wars Emperor Charles had in view the object and purpose of augmenting the Christian faith as far as lay within his power. And so when he had purged Saxony, he founded ten bishoprics there: He established the first Episcopal see at Osnabruck on the river Haase, in honor of Peter;[Osnabrück was the capital of the bishopric founded by Charlemagne in 783, but suppressed in 1803; it was governed alternately by a Roman Catholic and a Protestant prince after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. In 1858 it again became the seat of the Roman Catholic bishop. Osnabrück is located on the river Haase.] the second, in honor of Saint Stephen, at Halberstadt;[Halberstadt is an old town on the Holzemme. The Episcopal see was founded in the 9th century, but was suppressed by the Peace of Westphalia. St. Stephen’s Cathedral, the most important edifice, was destroyed by fire in 1179, but gradually rebuilt in the following centuries.] the third, in the castle of Wesekinus, at Minden, on the river Weser;[Minden, on the Weser, was the seat of a bishop from the time of Charlemagne to 1648 when it fell to Brandenburg as a secular principality. After 1526 the bishops were Protestant.] the fourth, in honor of Saint Peter, at Bremen, on the Weser;[Bremen, on the Weser, is one of the chief commercial cities of Germany. The bishopric of Bremen was founded by Charlemagne in 788. During the 13th and 14th centuries the citizens contrived gradually to shake off the archiepiscopal yoke, and in 1522 embraced the Reformation.] the fifth, in honor of the most blessed Virgin Mary, at Paderborn;[Paderborn, a very ancient city, which became an Episcopal see in 795. Here Charlemagne held a diet in 777. It became a town in the year 1000.] the sixth, at Werden,