First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

mother Adelaide, we have, by virtue of our imperial authority and might, enfeoffed and firmly given over our city called Bamberg, together with all things thereunto belonging, to our beloved grandson, Duke Henry, for his sole use forever, etc. Afterwards Emperor Henry the Saint, beautified this city, and together with his spouse, the holy virgin Kunigunde, there founded a worthy Episcopal church and court; for while living they passed by nothing that they considered serviceable to the veneration of God and in promotion of it. After death they were also illustrious for many miracles in the same royal cathedral. There also lies buried Berengar, who conquered the kingdom of Italy, and was made prisoner by Otto the First and taken to Germany, where he died in exile. This city was adorned with public edifices and very beautiful churches. Saint Otto, its bishop and an apostle to Pomerania, together with the banner of Saint George, is also at Bamberg. And it is believed that here are two of the six jars in which the Lord our Savior made wine out of water, as the Gospel states; also the sword with which Peter struck off the ear of Malchus. The praises and a description of the city are set forth in a beautifully and artistically bound poem, written by Godfrey of Viterbo, the distinguished historian[Godfrey of Viterbo (c. 1120 – c. 1196), was a medieval chronicler and secretary to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Educated at Bamberg, he wrote several historical works, some in a mixture of verse and prose.]:[In an extremely rare (unique?) cross-reference between the two editions of the , the German text (published 6 months later than the Latin in December of 1493) ends its paragraph on Bamberg not with Godfrey’s poem, but with the following text: “He who wishes to benefit by its instruction should consult the Latin text following the description of the city of Bamberg.”]

[First Column]
A Bavarian river called by the common people Regnitz (Radiantia)
Sustains the lands of Noricum, and wandering far off departs
And nourishes the lovely parts of the city of Mount Pavo,
Which in the common tongue is called Mount Bamberg.
By the river the neighboring land is made fertile(?) and is irrigated.
And a bridge built over it links both sides.
This extremely praiseworthy city grows from the lowest parts of the mountain
And from there it takes flight with its towers first in place.
The clergy, however, occupies the peaks of the mountain from the city.
A row of homes surrounded by a host of walls,
With the laity shut out, is the lords’ fort.
The shape of the church enlarges and adorns the mountain’s peak.
Mount Pavo possesses hills at its flanks,
Three as if the same, and also the principal (peaks?) of the city.
[Second Column]
It itself shining in the middle is preeminent and without equal.
More beautiful (than the other mountains?) it gives very large places for those monks.
The remaining (mountains?) give (space for) the churches of many canons.
One quarter offers a market place on both sides of the river.
In the manner of a cross, therefore, has Pavo (i.e., Bamberg) placed its settlement.
Peter[The name of a church. Today known by the name of Dom (‘Cathedral’) in Bamberg.] stands in the middle, Stephen[The name of a church, called St. Stephan in Bamberg.] holds itself to its right.
At the peak stands James[The name of a church, called Jakobskirche and located on the Jakobsberg in Bamberg today.], on the left Michael[The name of a church, called Michelskirche and located on the Michelsberg in Bamberg today.] keeps itself.
Along the river, the virgin Maria carries the glory
Of the holy emperor Henry, surnamed the Lame.
These and yet many more good things of his
Were, he whose bones are good at working miracles.
(My) history calls me; farewell, blessed Pavo!

Bamberg (Babenberg) is a city of Upper Franconia, in Bavaria, and lies in one of the most fertile regions of Germany. It is located in great part on the left shore of the left arm of the Regnitz, and extends, like an amphitheater, over five hills. The Part of the city beyond the right arm of the Regnitz is in communication with the city by means of ten bridges, of which the most important and most centrally located is the Obere Brücke (or Upper Bridge) built by Forcheimer in 1452-56. The city is first mentioned about 902, and was originally located beside the Castrum Babenberch, which was built in the ninth century and belonged to the family of the counts of Babenberg. After the fall of the Babenbergers the city became part of the empire, and later by grants passed to the Bavarian duke Henry the Quarreler, whose son Emperor Henry II particularly favored the city and founded the cathedral and Episcopal see of Bamberg. In the 15th and 16th centuries bloody feuds occurred between the bishops and the citizens, who refused to sacrifice the independence they had enjoyed in the past; and later there were other feuds, with the margraves of Brandenburg. In the Thirty Years War the city suffered severely at the hands of the Swedes; in the Seven Years War, through the Prussians; and finally, in the 19th century, at the hands of the French troops. City and see were assigned to Bavaria in 1802.

Bamberg lies in an open plain on the Regnitz, two miles above its junction with the Main, and thirty-nine miles north of Nuremberg. It grew up beside the castle of Babenberchem, which gave its name to the Babenberg family. The cathedral, a late Romanesque building, with four imposing towers, founded by Henry II in 1004, was later partially destroyed by fire, and rebuilt in the 13th century. The original building was a flat-roofed basilica, but in its present form it dates from the close of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century. The four eight-storied towers are 265 feet in height. In the center of the nave is the sarcophagus of the founder, Henry II (who died in 1024) and his consort Kunigunde (who died in 1038), executed in a fine-grained limestone resembling marble—the work of Riemenschneider (c. 1500). On the highly ornate sarcophagus repose the emperor and the empress, over life-sized, in the fantastic costumes of the 15th century.

Other noteworthy churches are the Jakobskirche, and 11th century Romanesque basilica, and St. Martinskirche and Marienkirche (1320-87). The Michaelskirche, 12th century Romanesque (restored) on the Michaelsberg, was formerly the church of the Benedictine monastery, secularized in 1803. Picturesque Old Palace (Alte Residenz) was built in 1591 on the site of the old residence of the courts of Babenberg. The New Palace (1698-1704) was formerly occupied by the prince-bishops; for from the middle of the 13th century the bishops were princes of the empire. The schools include the lyceum for philosophy and Catholic history, a survival of the university suppressed in 1803. The industries of the town include cotton spinning, the manufacture of shoes, calico, and ropes. The market gardens of the neighborhood are famous, and there is considerable shipping by the river and the Ludwigskanal.