First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Arnulf (Arnulphus), the seventh emperor of the Guals, reigned after Charles (Carolum) the Great. He was elected emperor in the Year of Salvation eight hundred ninety-one in the place of Charles the Third, and reigned 12 years. After he became king of Germany, Pope Formosus, who had been overpowered by his persecutors, asked him to come to Italy to protect him. During his first invasion Arnulf took the city of Bergamo and hanged its duke. Proceeding to Rome, he restored Formosus to his former dignity; and Formosus having crowned him, Arnulf returned to France. This emperor vigorously fought those of Mainz; and he pursued the Normans, who, together with the Danes had done great damage for forty years in Gaul; and he tamed them by great battles. Afterwards he ruled over eastern France, called the German Empire, such as Bavaria, Swabia, Saxony, Thüringia, Friesia, and Lorraine; but Odo (Oddo), son of the Duke of Saxony, through the Emperor Arnulf, had retained possession of France; and so he gave Lorraine to his son Cendebuldus, who was born to him by a concubine. But afterwards Arnulf, due to too much good fortune, became vain and haughty toward the people, and particularly toward the clergy. And as a punishment lice and maggots crawled about his body, and no cure could be found for it. He died of this malady at Otting, in Bavaria. With Arnulf the nobility and supremacy of the Franks over the Roman Empire, which had endured about one hundred years, came to an end.[Arnulf (850-899), Roman emperor, illegitimate son of Carloman, king of Bavaria and Italy, was made margrave of Carinthia, about 876, and on his father’s death in 888 his dignity and possessions were confirmed by the new king of the East Franks, Louis III. He did homage to the emperor Charles the Fat in 882, and spent the next few years in warfare with the Slavs and Northmen. In 887, however, Arnulf identified himself with the disgust felt by the Bavarians and others concerning the incapacity of Charles the Fat. Gathering a large army, he marched to Tribur; Charles abdicated, and in 888 the Germans recognized Arnulf as their king, a proceeding described as the first independent action of the German secular world. Arnulf’s real authority did not extend far beyond the confines of Bavaria, and he contented himself with a nominal recognition of his supremacy by the kings who sprang up in the various parts of the empire. He continued the struggle with the Normans, and gave effective aid to the king of Moravia in his struggle with the nobles. Invited by Pope Formosa to deliver him from the power of Guido III, duke of Spoleto, who had been crowned emperor, Arnulf went to Italy in 894; but after storming Bergamo and receiving the homage of some of the nobles at Pavia, he was compelled by desertions from his army to return. He succeeded in establishing his illegitimate son, Zwentibold, as king of Lorraine. The restoration of peace with the Moravians, and the death of Guido, prepared the way for a more successful expedition in 895, and Arnulf was crowned emperor by Formosus in 896. He set out to establish his authority in Spoleto, but was seized with paralysis on the way, and died in 899. By his widow Ota he left a son, Louis, surnamed the Child.]

The Huns, a people of Scythia, in bygone days, migrated in a great and mighty force from their homeland, and they did not settle down until they had reached their blood relations, the Hungarians, in Pannonia. They were so powerful that they drove out the Hungarians. When they first came there they were so barbarous that they ate raw meat, and at times human flesh. A few years after their arrival, and when Arnulf had been elected emperor in France, the Lombards, hoping for assistance from the Hungarians against Arnulf, or taking advantage of evil conditions and dissensions in Italy, had decided that they would ignore the Romans, whom they considered of minor importance; and they carried on open feuds and hostilities against them. When the Romans and other Italians learned that they could secure no assistance against the Lombards from the emperor, who was troubled with fresh dissensions in France, they elected as emperor Berengar (Berengarium), duke of Friuli, a native of Rome.[See the note to Benedict IV, Folio CLXXII verso, below.] In the meantime the Huns overran the Germans and the Gauls. In the first invasion they made many prisoners from among the Germans, or killed them; plundered and robbed many churches, and ravaged and destroyed them with fire and sword. Likewise they took and carried away a remarkable quantity of loot from Gaul—gold, silver, gems, and ornaments, and destroyed many beautiful and costly buildings.

William (Guilliclinus), surnamed the Pious, a duke of Aquitaine and count of Alvernia, was, at this time, held in high esteem for his faith, conduct, morals, learning, and his service to God. Having no male heir, he built the monastery of Cluny on his paternal soil in Burgundy, and appointed over it as abbot, Berno, a highly learned man. He endowed it with a large quantity of money, rents and revenues.[The Monastery of Cluny was founded in 910 by William I, surnamed the Pious, count of Auvergne and duke of Guienne (Aquitaine). The first abbot was Berno, who had two monasteries in the neighborhood under his rule. Just before his death in 927, two or three others came under his control, so that he bequeathed to his successor the government of a little group of five or six houses, which became the nucleus of the Cluniac Order. Berno’s successor, Odo, armed with papal privileges, set out to make Cluny the center of a revival and reform among the monasteries of France. He also exercised some influence over the Benedictine houses in Italy. The process of extension went on under his successors, so that by the 12th century Cluny had become the center and head of a great order embracing the 314 monasteries in all parts of Europe.]

Berno, the abbot of the monastery just mentioned, a native of Burgundy and born of noble ducal ancestry, was held in great esteem in these times for his piety and distinguished teachings.

Rudolph (Rudolphus), was appointed king of the Burgundians. This kingdom endured for a long time.[Rudolph, or Raoul, king of the Franks, and duke of Burgundy, was a son of the Burgundian duke Richard, and probably a member of the Carolingian family. He succeeded his father in 921, married Emma, daughter of Robert, duke of the Franks, and assisted his father-in-law in driving the Frankish king Charles III (‘the Simple’) from the throne. Robert then became king of the Franks, but was killed in battle in 923, and was succeeded by Rudolph. At Limoges, Rudolph defeated the Normans, the Aquitanians, and Herbert of Vermandois. Rudolph died at Auxerre, leaving no sons, on January 14, 936.]

Sunderold (Sunderoldus), archbishop of Mainz, was martyred at Worms by the Normans.[Sunderold was the Archbishop of Mainz from 889 until 891. He died on June 25th, 891, while leading an army against the Normans.]

Remigius, bishop of Auxerre (Autesidorensem), was at this time renowned for his interpretation of divine and profane scriptures.[]