First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Charles (Carolus), the second of that name, surnamed the Bald, began to reign in the first year of Pope John; and reigned for 6 years. For five consecutive years he was at war with the Britons. He fought, firstly, Homevoius the duke, and then his son Crispoius, and he killed them both. He conquered Britain, and caused himself to be anointed king in the city of Lemonice. With his army he returned home to France. During this same period Charles’s brother, king of Bavaria and Germany, died in Frankfurt. And although the passage of the empire to this Charles is not mentioned, yet it appears according to all historians that he assumed the imperial title, journeyed to Rome, received the crown from Pope John the Eighth, and then returned to France. When peace was restored he again journeyed to Rome. In the meantime Carloman and Charles, his nephews, assembled an army from all the regions of Germany, to be sent against their uncle in Italy. But Charles took up arms against them, and decided to intercept their invasion at the city of Trient. But as he became afflicted with illness at Mantua, he was poisoned by a drink given him by Sedechias, a Hebrew (whom he employed as his doctor). This Charles the Second was a very devout Christian who built many monasteries and churches all over, and at the same time enhanced things divine.[Charles II called the Bald (823-877), Roman emperor and king of the West Franks, son of Emperor Louis the Pious, was born in 823. The death of the emperor in 840 was the signal for the outbreak of war between the sons. Charles allied himself with Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the emperor Lothair, and the two allies defeated him at Fontenoy on June 25, 841. In the following year the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated oaths of Strasbourg. The war was ended by the treaty of Verdun, in 843, which gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saone, and the Rhone, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as Ebro. The first years of his reign up to the death of Lothair I, in 855, were comparatively peaceful, and during this period was continued the system of “confraternal government” of the sons of Louis the Pious, who had various meetings with one another. In 858 Louis the German invaded the kingdom of Charles. In 860 he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but he was repulsed. On the death of Lothair II, in 869, he tried to seize his dominions, but was compelled to share them with Louis the German. Beside this, Charles had to struggle against incessant rebellions in Aquitaine against the Bretons, who defeated him in 845 and 851, and especially against the Normans, who devastated the country in the north of Gaul, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even the borders of Aquitaine. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders. In 875, after the death of Emperor Louis II, Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, descended into Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia, and the imperial crown at Rome. But Louis the German avenged himself for Charles’s success by invading and devastating his dominions. Charles was recalled to Gaul, and after the death of Louis the German, in 876, in his turn made an attempt to seize his kingdom; but he met defeat in the same year. In the meantime John VIII, who was menaced by the Saracens, was continually urging him to come to Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but at the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles started back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis, in October 877. He was succeeded by his son Louis the Stammerer.]

Charles (Carolus) the Third, surnamed the Fat, reigned 12 years from the Year of the Incarnation eight hundred eighty-one. He was a king of Gaul and Germany. He marched into Italy with a great army of remarkable strength and conquered entire Lombardy. Coming to Rome, he received the imperial crown from Pope John (Ioanne). Not long thereafter, with an army, he marched against the Normans who were ravaging France and Lorraine with plunder and fire. After learning of the death or Emperor Louis they besieged the noble city of Trier and devastated the vicinity with fire. Afterwards this Charles was recalled from Italy by the German and Gallic princes to protect his fatherland against the Normans. So he assembled an army against the Normans out of the Lombards, Bavarias, Saxons, Frisians, Alamanni, and Thüringians; and in a short time he pressed them so mightily that Rothifred, their king, sued for peace, and allowed himself to be made a Christian; and he was baptized, the emperor acting as godfather. Some state that in the time of Pope Stephen the Fifth, Charles, after having reigned 12 years, was relieved of his authority by the leaders, because of his physical sluggishness and mental dullness, and that Arnulf was put in his stead. In the following year, Louis, son of Charles, the king of France, died and was buried in the monastery of Saint Dionysius, leaving Carloman as heir to the throne. Not long afterwards, during a chase, Carloman was injured by a wild boar, and died. After this they were subject to Charles the emperor, who alone was seen to survive of the family line of Carolingians. Some say that Charles, while ill, fell into such necessity, poverty and want that he gratefully received a small income or quantity of gold from Arnulf gratis.[Charles III, surnamed the Fat, Roman emperor and king of the West Franks, was the youngest of three sons of Louis the German, and received from his father the kingdom of Swabia (Alamannia). After the death of his two brothers, Carloman, in 881, and Louis the Younger, in 882, he inherited his father’s entire dominions. He was crowned emperor by John VIII in February 881. On his return to Germany he led an expedition against the Norsemen of Friesland; but instead of engaging with them, he preferred to make terms and pay them tribute. In 880, by the death of Carloman the West Frankish realm came into his possession, while in 885 he got rid of his rival, Hugh of Alsace, an illegitimate son of Lothair II. In spite of six expeditions into Italy, he failed to pacify the country, and did not deliver it from the Saracens. He was equally unfortunate in Gaul and Germany against the Normans who besieged Paris in 886-887. The emperor appeared before the city with a large army in October 886, but contented himself by buying the retreat of the invaders at the price of a heavy ransom, and his permission for them to ravage Burgundy without interference. On his return to Alamannia the general discontent showed itself openly and a conspiracy was formed against him. He was deposed by an assembly in 887, and died at Neidingen on the Danube in January 888.]

The County of Flanders had its origin in the time of Charles (Caroli) the Bald, although at that time it was not as rich and mighty as now, and was governed by the chief foresters of the king of France. One of these, named Audacrus, had a son named Baldwin (Baldvinus), who eloped with the king’s daughter Judith, and was therefore banished. However, he was later reconciled, and the emperor gave Baldwin and Judith, and their heirs the County of Flanders to be theirs forever.

Johannes (Ioannes) Scotus, a brilliant man of subtle comprehension, honeyed speech, and highly informed in the Holy Scriptures, was held in great esteem by the aforesaid Charles (Carolum). He came from Scotland and went to France, and at the request of the emperor translated the books of Dionysius the Areopagite, concerning the hierarchy, from Greek into Latin. He composed four books (entitled) On the Division of Nature. Finally, attracted by the munificence of Alfred, he went to England, where at the monastery of Malmesbury, having been stabbed by the students he was teaching with their pens, he died and achieved martyrdom. His book On the Eucharist, afterwards celebrated in the Vercelli Synod by Leo the Ninth, was (at first) condemned. And he made commentaries On the Hierarchy[Perhaps this refers to Johannes Scottus’ long commentary on Pseudo-Dionysius’ (‘Celestial Hierarchy’).].[Johannes Scotus (better known as Eriugena (‘Irish-born’), but also John the Irishman, John the Scot, etc.), born c. 815, was doubtless a native of Ireland (then ‘Scotia’). He ws a theologian, Neoplatonist philosopher, and poet who seems to have spent most of his life at the court of Charles the Bald in France, where, from about 843 he was the head of the ‘court school.’ One of the most original philosophers of the Middle Ages, in 851 he came to the assistance of Hincmar in the Predestination controversy with the doctrine that evil is simply that which has no existence, and that therefore damnation consists only in the consciousness of having failed to fulfill the divine purpose. The council of Valance condemned this pultes Scotorum (‘Scots/Irish porridge’) as an invention of the devil. He translated into Latin the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and the Greek scholiast to Gregory Nazianzen. His chief work (854) was condemned by a council at Sens and by Pope Honorius III in 1225. It was edited by Schulter in 1638, and by Gale in 1681, and was placed in the Index by Gregory XIII, in 1685. In it he sought to reconcile the fundamental truths of Christianity with human reason. He died in 877. The story of his death as recorded in the is most likely a fiction.]

Anastasius, the Roman church librarian, very learned in Greek and Latin, made many translations from one language into the other at this time.[]