First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 6023

Year of Christ 824

Eugenius, the second pope of that name, a Roman whose father was Bohemund (Boemundo), succeeded Paschal (Pascali). At this time occurred the eighth schism, between this Eugenius and one named Zinzinnus (Zinzinum); but Eugenius was worthy and honorable, and a man of distinction. And by reason of his amiability and eloquence he was given the preference. He was so industrious in the harvesting of the crops, that at no time was grain marketed in Rome at a lower price. And he protected the widows and orphans, and therefore he was deservedly called the father of the poor by many persons. After having officiated for four years he died, and was mourned by all. Some write that his enemies deprived him of his eyesight, and that thus he was crowned with martyrdom. His body was buried with every devotion in the Basilica of Peter, prince of the Apostles.[Eugenius (sometimes called Eugene in English) II, a native of Rome, succeeded Pope Paschal I in 824. He was the candidate of the nobles, while the clerical faction brought forth a competitor. But the monk Wala, representative of the emperor Lothair, succeeded in securing the election of Eugenius. Lothair, however, took advantage of this opportunity to redress many abuses in the papal administration, to vest the election of the pope in the nobles, and to confirm the statute that no pope should be consecrated until his election had been approved by the emperor. A council, which assembled at Rome, passed enactments for the restoration of church discipline, took measures for the foundation of schools and chapters, and decided against priests wearing secular dress or engaging in secular occupations. Eugenius died in 827, and was succeeded by Valentine.]

Pope Valentine (Valentinus), a Roman whose father was Leontius, was a man who from his tender years until a mature age learned from Paschal and Eugenius, very holy men, knowledge, reason, and how to lead a good and holy life. He was not inclined to gaming, quarreling and wanton pleasures, which youths indulge in, but took the teachings and regulations of a worthy life from the writings of the ancients and the examples of the holy popes. And having thus led a holy, virtuous, good and kind life, he was elevated to the pontificate, of which he was well worthy. But he died on the fortieth day of his pontificate, possibly through the fault of his contemporaries, and was buried in the Basilica of Peter. When he was alive scarcely could Roman freedom or the Christian religion be weakened.

Valentinus, successor of Pope Eugenius II, a Roman by birth, held the pontificate, in 827, for only 40 days. He was first made a deacon by Paschal I. Nothing further is known of his history. He was succeeded by Gregory IV.

The last sentence is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Year of the World 6033

Year of Christ 834

Pope Gregory (Gregorius) the Fourth, a Roman whose father was John (Ioanne), and a priest of the parish church of Saint Mark, of noble birth, renowned piety, distinguished scriptural wisdom and learning, and possessed of eloquence, was a man of such discretion that upon his election as pope by the Roman clergy and the people he was not willing to obtain this office until the ambassadors of Emperor Louis (Ludovici), who were to carefully discuss and confirm the election, arrived. And Emperor Louis did not send them on account of pride, but to serve the interests of the empire. At his behest Gregory instituted the feast of All Saints, to be celebrated on the Kalends of November, and the Gauls and the Germans were the first to observe it. After many good deeds Gregory died in the 16th year of his pontificate, and was buried in the Basilica of Peter. After his death the seat was vacant for 15 days.[Gregory IV, pope from 827 to 844, is chiefly associated with the quarrels between Lothair and Louis the Pious. The institution of the feast of All Saints is usually attributed to him. He died January 25, 844.]

Pepin (Pipinus), Emperor Charles’s (Caroli) eldest son, reigned as king of Italy for 13 years. He was a man of high renown, and not unlike his father in a number of ways. His father sent him against the Hungarians, whom he subdued by force of arms; also the Beneventans who were oppressing the adjoining papal lands; and against the Venetians. He also attacked Heraclaea and Aquilaeia, on which account many of the nobility went to Venice. And when he had accomplished these things and concluded many other wars, he went to Milan and there ended his life in renown and peace.[Pepin, king of Italy, second son of Charlemagne, by Hildegard, was born in 777 and died in 810. He was baptized and crowned king of Rome by Pope Adrian in 781. He carried on several wars with the Avars. In 797, together with the Bavarians and Lombards, he devastated the land of the Slavs, and in 799 marched with his father against the Saxons. In the division of the empire of Charlemagne in 806, he received Bavaria and Italy. He drove off the Moors and Corsicans, Captured Venice in 810, and subjugated the Dukes Wilheran and Beatus. His son Bernard (who died in 818) was made king of Italy by Charles the Great, his grandfather.]

Bernard (Bernardus), grandson of Charles (Caroli) the Great, was declared king of Italy by the emperor, after Pepin (Pipinum); and he reigned 9 years. Although the emperor Charlemagne had commanded him to obey his son and successor (Louis) in all things, yet after Charlemagne’s death, Bernhard refused, being influenced by a number of Italian bishops and quarrelsome citizens. He took up arms and a number of cities were compelled to submit and the people to take an oath. When knowledge of this came to the emperor, he adjudged Bernard guilty of lese majesty[The phrase ‘lese majesty’ translates the Latin l(a)esa maiestatis crimine of the . Best known by its French spelling, lèse majesté, the phrase in any language translates as ‘(crime of) injury to the Majesty’. It is the crime of violating majesty, an offense against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state.], and declared him an enemy. And the emperor, together with an army collected from Gaul, Germany and Bavaria, marched into Italy. Those of the nobility who were to blame were strangled, Bernhard was beheaded, and the bishops were deposed and sent into monasteries.[Bernhard, king of Italy, (illegitimate) son of Pepin and grandson of Charlemagne, was appointed king by the latter, and crowned in 813. When Louis the Pious, in 817, decided to divide the empire among his sons, and to appoint his son Lothair as his successor, Bernard felt himself aggrieved, and took to arms. On the pretence of a settlement he was enticed to Chalon on the Saons, and in 818 was blinded. He died on the following April 17th. Louis the Pious rued this gruesome deed, and in 822 did public penance in church for it.]