First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Charles (Carolus) was surnamed the Great because of his distinguished services, his great faith, and his liberality toward all Christians. After he had added to his paternal kingdom, not only Gaul, on the Rhine and on the sea; and Germany, on the Danube and the river Saale; also Aquitaine,[Aquitaine was a Roman province in southwestern Gaul; later a French duchy united with England in 1154; conquered by the French in 1451.] Vasconia,[Vasconia, the country of the Vascones, in the northeastern part of Hispania Terraconensis, between the Iberus and the Pyrenees, and stretching as far as the north coast in the present Navarre and Guipuscoa. Their name is preserved in the modern one of the Basques, although the people do not call themselves by that appellation, but Euscaldunac, their country Euscalaria, and their language Euscara. They went into battle bareheaded, and passed among the Romans for skillful soothsayers. Their principal town is Pompelo (Pamplona).] and nearly all of Spain; and had engaged the Lombards in Italy and by might and force added them to his kingdom; but also Saxony, which is no small part of the German nation, and both Pannoniae,[Pannonia was one of the most important provinces of the Roman Empire, on the south and west of the Danube, which forms its boundary on the north and east; to the south lie Illyricum and Moesia; while in the west it was separated from Noricum by Mount Cetius, and from Italy by the Julian Alps. The country extended along the Danube from Vindobona (Vienna) to Singidunum, and accordingly comprised the eastern portions of Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, the portion of Hungary between the Danube and the Save, Slavonia, and portions of Croatia and Bosnia. The Romans divided it into Pannonia Superior and Inferior, and Upper and Lower Pannonia, and in consequence of this division the whole country is sometimes called by the plural name Pannoniae.] and beyond the Danube, Dacia[Dacia, between the lower Danube and the Carpathian mountains was the country of the Daci or Getae, a Thracian people.] and Istria,[Istria, a peninsula in the Adriatic, running out from the coast of Liburnia, between Trieste and the Gulf of Quarnero.] and the entire Liburnian kingdom;[Liburnia, a district in Illyricum, occupied by the Liburni. Driven out from the countries between Pannonia and Venetia by the Gallic invasion, they were compressed within the district from the Titius to the Arsia, which assumed the name of Liburnia. It was afterward incorporated into the province of Dalmatia and made a Roman colony.] also all the barbarian people living in Germany between the Danube, the sea, and the Rhine—partly by force of arms and in part by kindness—so with these possessions and distinguished deeds he attained to this name and renown through force of his arms, not only in Gaul, but throughout the world. In the Year of Salvation eight hundred and one, being the fifth year of Pope Leo, (after Constantine the Great left Rome and went East to Constantinople, and the Roman Empire in the West had been dormant for two hundred thirty years after Augustulus), this Charles, through his virtue and power, brought the empire back to the West; and he received the name and office of emperor with the consent of the Roman people, and to their great joy; and as such emperor he reigned for fourteen years. In commemoration of this imperial honor he restored to its former state the city of Florence, the greater part of which had been destroyed by the Goths; and he brought back into the city all the nobles who had been dispersed among the neighboring towns, castles and marches; and he encompassed it with new walls, and adorned it with churches. Charles was erect in body, had a broad chest and shoulders, large bright eyes, slightly elevated nose, well-formed fine mouth, and a clear voice. He was dignified and courageous in bearing, manner and action. He had a long beard, healthy complexion and, according to Gallic custom, was devoted to the chase, which he believed conducive to health. It is said that he also derived much satisfaction and pleasure from the bath and from natural warm springs. He built a church to the Holy Virgin Mary at great cost and expense in the city of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aquisgrani), the capital of the empire, where he maintained his royal seat; and to this church he gave the handkerchief and shift of the most blessed Mary. In addition to his royal virtues he was well spoken, versatile, and learned in the fine arts. He had many beautiful children by many wives, especially by his wife Hildegard, namely, Charles (Carolum), Pepin (Pipinum), Louis (Ludovicum), and a number of daughters. The sons he placed under the tutelage of highly learned men for instruction in letters and in wisdom; but in order that the daughters might not become indifferent through idleness, he accustomed them to good works. When he became burdened with years, and his son Pepin, the king of Italy, had passed away at Milan, he made provision that his son Louis should be king of Aquitaine and successor to the Empire, while his grandson Bernhard should be king of Italy and obedient to Louis in all things; and he confirmed to his successors not only the kingdom of the Franks, but also the title or emperor. He left Aix-la-Chapelle to participate in the chase, but returned with a fever, and a pain in his side. And he died in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh year of his reign, in the eight hundred and fifteenth year of Christian salvation on the fifth day of the Kalends of February. His body was buried with a solemn funeral in the Basilica at Aix-la-Chapelle with (his sepulcher) bearing the following epigram: The Body of Charles the Great, a Most Christian Emperor of the Romans, Lies Buried under this Sepulcher.[The inscription is not in the German edition of the .] Three years before his death he made a will, dividing his estate into three parts, two of which he bequeathed to the principal bishops for the use of the churches and the benefit of the poor, while the third part he gave to his children and grandchildren according to their respective shares. Among his treasures were three silver tables, and a very large golden one. On one was engraved the city of Constantinople, and this he sent to St. Peter’s Church in Rome. On another was engraved the city of Rome, and this he gave to the church at Ravenna. The third one contained a description of all the country round about. This third silver table, as well as the golden one, he left to his sons.[See Folio CLXVII recto, and note.]

At this time a Jew in Syria, to the grief of the Christians, pierced an image of Christ with a lance; and soon blood flowed from it continuously. The Jew becoming frightened, held a vessel under the wound, and collected the blood. By this many people were cured, and more Jews were converted to the Christian faith. The same blood was later brought to Mantua, where it was held in great veneration because of the miracles which occurred in its presence. When Charles (Carolus) the emperor heard of this, he wrote to Pope Leo to apprise him of these things. Upon learning of this the pope went to Mantua, and after preserving the blood, he went to Charles and advised him of the truth of this miracle.