First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Year of the World 6003

Year of Christ 804

Leo, the third pope of that name, whose father was Arrupius, was elected pope. He was a highly learned man, and so reared and instructed in ecclesiastical and spiritual training, that he was worthy of elevation above all others. He was a virtuous, wholesome, well disciplined, eloquent man, and such a lover of the learned that by means of compensatory inducements he attracted them to himself from many places, and found great pleasure in their instruction and company. He showed great zeal in teaching, preaching, visiting the sick, and in giving alms. After he had admonished two priests for their misconduct, they decided upon revenge, and in the course of a litany and procession he was stopped, made a prisoner, deprived of his papal ornaments, his tongue and his sight, and was placed in custody in the monastery or Saint Erasmus. But his speech and sight (as Bibliothecarius testifies) were restored to him by divine grace. Through the assistance of a faithful chamberlain ho was led to the Basilica of the Blessed Peter, and Winegis (Vinisigius), the duke of Spoleto, was appealed to for help. Leo stayed there only a few days, proceeding to King Charles (Carolum) in Saxony; but upon the latter’s orders he returned to Rome. The Roman clergy and the people came some distance to meet him. Later Charles also came to Rome, being received by the pope and the people with great glory, honor, and joy. Soon afterwards the king called the clergy and the people to the Basilica of the Blessed Peter. There the pope, placing the Gospel of Christ on a lectern, swore on it that he was innocent of all that of which he stood accused. This occurred on the Ides of December in the Year of Salvation eight hundred. On the day of the birth of our Lord (i.e. Christmas day), following, Leo crowned Charles as Roman emperor, and anointed his son Pepin as king of Italy. Finally this Leo built from the ground up a large hospital, which the Greeks call xenodochion, near Saint Peter’s. He died in the twenty-first year of his pontificate.[Leo III, whose pontificate (795-816) covered the last 18 years of the reign of Charlemagne, was a native of Rome, and succeeded Adrian I. His first act was to send to Charles as patrician the standard of Rome along with the keys of the sepulcher of St. Peter and of the city, and other presents, with a request that he send an ambassador to Rome to receive the oath of allegiance. Thus Charlemagne was put in full possession of the city; and the pope having renounced subjection to the Greek emperors, their sovereignty over Rome ended. In 799, while riding in a procession, Leo was attacked at the instigation of the nephews of Adrian I with the idea of depriving him of his eyes and tongue in order to disqualify him for the papal office; but this barbarous intention was not executed. Leo sought the help of the Frankish duke of Spoleto. Having vainly requested the presence of Charles in Rome, Leo crossed the Alps to meet the king at Paderborn. He was received with ceremony and respect, but Charles appointed both pope and his accusers to appear before him at Rome. Charles appeared at Rome the following year and acquitted the pope, who was, however, required to clear himself by the oath of compurgation. The coronation of Charles took place two days later, on Christmas day, 800; and Leo also anointed his son. After Charles’s death Leo’s enemies renewed their attacks, and serious charges were pending against him when he died in 816.] A comet appeared in the year in which the said Pope Leo died; and which, according to some, was an omen of this calamity. And he was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the day before the Ides of June. After his death the seat was then vacant for ten days.

Year of the World 6013

Year of Christ 814

Stephen the Fourth, a Roman whose father was Julius, in the third month of his pontificate journeyed to Emperor Louis (Ludovicum) in Gaul. He respectfully sent forth Theodolphus, the local bishop, together with the clergy, to meet him, and also personally received him with great honor and respect. This Stephen was born of noble parents, and possessed such scriptural wisdom and wholesome disposition that he was piously regarded by all. And, as they say, he anointed and crowned said Louis. After various dealings between them, involving the peace of Italy, Leo returned to Rome, bringing with him a very costly cross of great value, which Louis presented to Saint Peter’s at his own expense. And this very holy pope died in the seventh month of his pontificate, and was buried in the Basilica of Peter. The seat, by his death, was then vacant eleven days.[Stephen IV, pope from June 816 to January 817, succeeded Leo III. He was consecrated immediately, and promptly ordered the Roman people to swear fidelity to Louis the Pious, to whom he paid a personal visit at Rheims. There he crowned the king and queen, but not until he had received homage from the emperor, who recognized him as his spiritual superior. Stephen died the year after his return to Rome.]

Paschal (Pascalis), the first pope of this name, a Roman whose father was Bonofus, was elected pope without the sanction of the emperor. As soon as he received the pontificate, he sent his emissaries to Emperor Louis to inquire whether he was obliged to accept the pontificate at the hands of the clergy and the people who had elected him; but Louis was satisfied with the proceedings, and said that the decision of the clergy and the people was to be observed; but that in future they were to be careful not to offend his majesty. Pope Stephen, while he still lived, placed this man (i.e., Paschal), on account of his virtue and learning, in charge o the monastery of Saint Stephen the Martyr in the Vatican; and he erected several churches and repaired others, and translated a number of holy bodies to worthy places. He died in the seventh year, third month and seventeenth day of his pontificate, and was buried in the Basilica of Peter. The seat then was vacant for four days.[Paschal I, native of Rome, was raised to the pontificate in 817 by acclamation of the clergy, and consecrated without imperial sanction. The new pontiff laid the blame for this hasty procedure on the clergy and people of Rome; and although Louis the Pious accepted the excuse, he gave warning that in the future his sovereign rights must not be so abused. Paschal’s relations with the imperial house were never very cordial, and he failed to win over the Roman nobles. He died in 824, and was succeeded by Eugenius II.]