First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Egidius, a Greek, born of an honorable family at Athens, and renowned at this time as a model of skill and for his miracles, was instructed in the Scriptures from youth. After the death of his parents he made Christ heir to his paternal inheritance. To avoid the dangers of worldly praise and renown, he maintained himself on the sea coast. Having entered a boat, he silenced the turbulent sea by his prayers. He came to the city of Arles (Arelate)[Arles (Arelate, Arelatum, Arelas), a city in southeastern France, 54 miles northwest of Marseilles.] and lived there for two years with Saint Caesarius (Cesareo), the bishop. He cured a man who for three years had suffered with fever or chills. Later he retired into seclusion in a hermitage, living for a long time with Verdunius (Veredamo), the holy man, and making the land fruitful by his labors. After he had enlightened all mankind by his miracles, he went further into the wilderness to avoid worldly praise. For a home he selected a cave with a spring. Through divine foresight he was provided a doe, which at certain hours nourished him with its milk. When one day the servants of a savage king were hunting this doe, it fled to his foot, and Egidius prayed God to preserve it unharmed. One of the hunters shot at the doe, but struck this holy man. When this became known to King Charles (Carolus), he received Egidius with all honor; and Egidius went into a monastery in the city of Nemausus (Nemarcusem)[Nemausus, a city in Gallia Narbonensis, on the road from Arles into Spain; now Nimes.], and he awakened the son of the prince. Finally, through the Lord’s revelation, he prophesied his own death to his brethren, and asked them to pray to God for him. They gave testimony that they heard the angels who received his soul. He was famous around the Year of the Lord 700.

Egidius (English: Giles; French: Gilles, Italian: Egidio; c. 650 - c. 710), according to legend, was a Greek of Athens who sailed to Marseilles and became acquainted with Caesares of Arles. According to tradition either Wamba, a Visigothic Frankish king, or Childebert, king of Franks, was following the chase in the forests along the Rhone, when a doe was startled and pursued by the hunters. It fled for refuge to a cave and penetrated into it, and an arrow as shot after it. The hunters entered the grotto and found a white-haired hermit sheltering the doe, with the arrow in his shoulder; for the old man had lived long in this solitary place, nourished by the milk of the doe.

The king, touched by the sight of this grand old man, caused the wound to be dressed, returned often to see him, and at last made him consent to the erection of a monastery upon the site of his grotto, of which he became abbot. The fame of the venerable hermit reached the ears of Charles Martel, who called him to Orleans. The abbot made the journey. Such was the origin of the celebrated abbey of St. Giles, which became one of the great pilgrim shrines of the Middle Ages, and gave birth to a town, the capital of a district whose name was born with pride by one of the most powerful feudal races.

Boniface (Bonifacius) the First, an archbishop, flourished in the time of the aforesaid popes. He was a highly learned and eloquent monk. Because of his graciousness he went from Britain to Pope Gregory the Second. When his virtue and piety become known, Gregory, at the request of Pepin (Pipino), appointed him to the see of Mainz as a bishop, and sent him to Germany to enlighten the people in the truth of the Gospel, and to instruct them in the true faith. This he did, carrying out his instructions by preaching in Thüringia, Hesse, Saxony, Austrasia and France. Having become an archbishop in the Year of Christ 715, he set up in France with the knowledge and authority of the pope and the princes of France, two Episcopal sees, one at Würtzburg, and the other at Eichstädt. He appointed Burkhard bishop of the former, and Willibald of the latter. Afterwards he went to Frisia to preach; and there he was martyred after having been at the head of the church for 36 years. [Boniface was born of noble parents, about 680, in Devonshire, and while still young became a monk. He soon distinguished himself as scholar and preacher. In 716, following the example of other Saxon monks, he set out on a mission to Frisia; but he was soon obliged to return, probable because of the hostility of the Frisian king, who was often at war with Charles Martel, he recrossed the Alps and recommenced operations in Hesse, where he found but few adhering to the Christian faith. They worshipped sacred groves and fountains, and Boniface determined to strike a blow at the heart of this obstinate paganism. There was an old and venerable oak at Fritzlar, near Geismar, hallowed for ages to Thor. With his clergy Boniface went forth to fell the tree, while the pagans assembled in a great multitude to behold this trial of strength between their ancient god and the God of the stranger. Boniface felled the tree, yet he remained unharmed by the pagan spirits; and the shuddering pagans bowed before the superior might of Christianity. Out of the wood of this tree Boniface built a chapel. (The incident is the basis for a charming story, , by Henry van Dyke.) And thus Boniface began a systematic crusade baptizing, founding churches and monasteries, and calling nuns and monks from England to join in the work. In 732 Boniface was made archbishop, and nine years later he was made a legate charged with the reformation of the whole Frankish church. This he organized into four bishoprics, Erfurt, Würzburg, Buraburg and Eichstädt. In 742 he presided over what is generally called the first German council. He founded the abbey of Fulda as a center for German monastic culture. About 746 Boniface was made archbishop of Mainz, and became metropolitan over the Rhine bishoprics and Utrecht, as well as over those he had established in Germany – thus founding the pre-eminence of the see of Mainz. In 754 he resigned his archbishopric and took up again his earliest plan for a mission to Frisia; but on June 5, 754, he and his companions were killed by the natives near Dockum. His remains were afterwards taken to Fulda. Although primarily a man of action, he left some literary remains consisting of letters, sermons, and a grammar.]

Around these times the Venetian dukedom had its origin; and one Paulus Lucius Heraclianus was elected duke in the city of Heraclea by the patricians, all the people and the army. He reigned as duke for eight years. He entered into an alliance with the Lombards, and devoted himself to the enhancement of the city of Venice in power and might.

Caesarius (Cesarius), bishop of Arles, a man famous for his holiness and knowledge, at this time wrote, among his other writings, ten homilies for monks.[Caesarius of Arles (c. 470-543), bishop of Arles and ecclesiastical legislator, was born at Chalons, Burgundy. In 502 he became bishop of Arles, a town then of great commercial and political importance. He convoked the council of Agde (506), of Arles (524), of Carpentras (527), of Orange and of Vaison (529), and of Marseille (533), in which such problems as semi-Pelagianism, ecclesiastical jurisdiction and property, and the education and support of the clergy were raised. His works, including his popular sermons, invaluable for history, and his monastic rule were published in Migne, Pat. Lat. Vol. LXVII.] Also Saint Wulfram (Wolframus), bishop of Sens (Zenonensis), was famous for his miracles.[] And just as famous for his holiness and his miracles was Albinus of Angers (Andegavensis)[Albinus, or Aubin, as he is called in France (c. 470-550), was a popular saint in the Middle Ages. His near contemporary, Venantius Fortunatus (c. 530-c. 600) wrote a short biography about him and the many miracles he was believed to have performed.], and Remigius, bishop of Rouen (Rothomagensis)[Remigius was the illegitimate son of Charles Martel (c. 688-741). He was also the third archbishop of Rouen from 755 to 762. Because of his status as a bastard he was denied any claim to the legacy of his father. He became archbishop during the reign of his half brother, Pippin the Younger (father of Charlegmagne).]. Also Saint Amatus, the archbishop of the English, was illustrious for his holiness.[Amatus (also called Ame), was a Benedictine abbot and hermit. He was born to a noble family in Grenoble, France, and was active his whole life in eastern France. He died in 627. Why the calls him an archbishop of the English is a mystery.]

Saint Kilian (Kilianus), the bishop, flourished in Eastern France at this time. He was a Scot, born of noble parents. He was learned in the Scriptures, scorned the world, lived in a monastery, and led a life of obedience and moderation. Later he was consecrated as a priest and elected to the care of the monastery. However, that he might be more free to see things, he went to Britain, Gaul and Germany; and through zeal for the crown of martyrdom he came to Würtzburg, among the pagans. Before he began to preach he went to Rome, received a commission as preacher from Pope Conon, and was consecrated as a bishop. And so, with the priest Colman (Colonato), and the deacon Totnan, he returned to Würtzburg. There he found Duke Gozbert (Gosbertum); and having learned to speak the vernacular language of that place[German.], he began to preach; and the duke abandoned the idolatrous goddess Diana, and with all his lands submitted to the Christian faith. On holy Easter Day he caused himself to be baptized. He had a wife, called Geilana, who at one time was the wife of his brother. Kilian advised him to give up his wife; but afterwards she so arranged matters that this holy man was slain. One of the murderers tore himself with his teeth, while the other became irrational and committed suicide with his sword. Geilana became possessed of demons and screamed, I am justly tortured since I sent the executioners to this holy man. And in still greater torments she came to an inglorious end. These glorious martyrs illuminate all of eastern France with their miracles and holiness.

Kilian, bishop and martyr, apostle of Franconia, was a native of Ireland. He was of an illustrious family, and having embraced a monastic life, is said to have governed some unknown monastery. Although much beloved by his clergy and people, a wish for travel came upon him, and taking with some companions, among whom are named Colman, a priest, and Totnan, a deacon, he crossed the sea and journeyed into Germany, finally arriving at Würzburg in Franconia; and there he made his abode. He was fortunate enough to convert and baptize Gozbert, duke of that part of Franconia, and this was followed by that of a great number of his subjects. When Kilian thought Gozbert sufficiently instructed to bear the denunciation of his marriage to his brother’s wife Geilana, Kilian spoke up and urged a separation, as the marriage was unlawful in the sight of God. But as Gozbert was about to proceed on a military expedition, he requested delay. After Gozbert had departed, Geilana, furious at the thought of a separation, hired assassins, who struck off the heads of Kilian, Colman and Totnan, and buried the three missionaries with their vestments, books and crosses. The relics of the martyrs were found in 752 by Burkhard, bishop of Würzburg, and were placed by him in the crypt of the great church which he erected in that city.

The last sentence is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.


Egidius, abbot, is represented in his church vestments and crozier. He is holding a hunted doe that has been shot with an arrow, although the text states that the abbot was shot by accident. He is pulling the arrow from the throat of the doe.


Saint Kilian (Kilianus), Saint Colman (Colonatus) and Saint Totnan (Totnanus), who were slain together at Würtzburg, are represented by a triple portrait. Kilian, in the center, is portrayed in Episcopal vestments, a sword, the instrument of his martyrdom, in his right hand, the crozier in his left. Colman to the left, and Totnan to the right, each carry a palm branch symbolizing their martyrdom. Below these portraits is a shield, probably intended as the coat of arms of the city of Würtzburg, and on either side of this is a border of grapevines emblematic of the famous vineyards of the city.