First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

A Council was held at this time at Aquilaeia to consider whether the action of the Fifth Council, previously held at Constantinople, should be accepted. The said Fifth Council was held in the time of Pope Julius[Schedel or his source is wrong here, since the Fifth Ecumenical Council took place during the time of Justinian I (reigned 527-565) and Pope Vigilius (whose papacy was 537-555), not Pope Julius (337-352).] and the emperor Justinian, against Theodore and all heretics who held that Mary bore but a human being, and not a man and God. So in the same Council it was ordained that the holy Mary should be called the Mother of God, because she bore not a mere man, but the true God and man.

Theodore (Theodorus), an archbishop of the English, highly learned and pious, flourished in England at this time; and he wrote many excellent things, notably a book on the subject of penances applicable to every case.

Theodore, seventh archbishop of Canterbury, was born, like Paul, at Tarsus, in Cicilia in 602; but he lived at Rome as a monk. He was a man of good life and profound learning, in consideration of which he was called ‘the Philosopher.’ The kings of Kent and Northumbria had sent one Wighard, who had been elected archbishop of Canterbury, to Pope Vitalian for consecration. Wighard had hardly reached Rome when he and his attendants died. Theodore was consecrated in his stead in 668 at the age of 66 years, and reached England in 689. According to Bede he turned the whole of Anglo-Saxon England, reforming abuses and giving instruction as to the monastic rule and the canonical Easter. According to the same authority he was the first bishop to whom all the ‘church of the Angles’ submitted. In 673 he presided at the first synod of the clergy in England, which was held at Hertford. After this council he revived the East Saxon bishopric. He also attended other councils. Theodore took great pains to introduce church music throughout England, for until then church song had been used only at Canterbury. One of the authentic monuments of his zeal is a penitential composed under his direction – a collection of moral and penal institutes known as the Liber Poenitentialis. It reveals the moral disorders of the times, and the efforts of the church to correct them. It embodies the entire penal system of the Germanic laws, founded on the principle that required a punishment for every offense. It is not intended as a code of ecclesiastical law, but, according to the preface, it is a collection of answers to questions asked on the subject of penance; and to this are added, in a second book, answers on the whole range of ecclesiastical laws and discipline.

Theodore died in 690, at the age of 88, after an episcopate of 22 years. No bishop before him had labored so much for the intellectual development of the native clergy, or for the union of the different Anglo-Saxon dynasties. He may well be reckoned among the founders of the English Church.

Saint Theodore, bishop of Augustudiensis,[This probably refers to Augustodunum, now Autun, which succeeded Bibracte as the capital of the Aedui when Gaul was reorganized by Augustus. Autun is on the Arroux, a tributary of the Loire, but it occupies only a part of the site of Augustodunum. The most curious of the many relics of antiquity found at Autun was an ancient chart or map, cut on marble, and since buried, it is said, under the foundations of a house. Eumenius speaks of such maps. “Let the youth see in these porticoes, and let them daily contemplate all lands and all seas – the sites of all places with their names, spaces, intervals, marked down;” which clearly shows that there were such maps or delineations for the use of the youth at Autun.] was also illustrious at this time.

Lambert (Lambertus), the holy man, suffered martyrdom at this time at Liege (Leodium) because he had denounced Pepin (Pipinum), the duke, for having had intercourse with Alpheid (Alpiadis) as a concubine, beside his lawful wife; although some say that the brother or this Alpheid himself practiced this evil, and was later eaten up by head-lice. This Lambert, born of rich and noble parents, and instructed in the Scriptures from youth, was so loved by the people for his piety that they elevated him to bishop of Utrecht (Traiectensi) after Theodard, his master. When Childeric, who elevated him to princely office, was assassinated, evil persons robbed him of his dignity and placed Faramund (Pharamundus) in his place. For that reason Lambert, taking with him two boys, went into a monastery, where he lived a commendable life for seven years. But Faramund was afterward expelled and Lambert reinstated; and many a person was converted to God by his example and learning. Once upon a time, while lying crosswise on his bed, he was slain at Liege by evil persons, and secretly carried on a ship to the Episcopal church; and because of his enemies he was quickly buried. But Saint Chumbertus, his successor, pursuant to divine admonition, transferred the body of Saint Lambert from Utrecht to Liege in a great glory of miracles.

Lambert was born at Maastricht, in the Netherlands, of noble parents, belonging to a powerful family. He was born between 636 and 638, and was given to Landoald to educate during his youth. When he grew older he was entrusted to Theodard, bishop of Maastricht. On the latter’s death Lambert succeeded him as bishop (670). His integrity and intelligence made him a favorite of Childeric II; but when that prince was assassinated, Lambert was driven from the see by Ebroin, mayor of the palace, who placed an intrusive prelate, Faramund, a canon of Cologne, in his room. Lambert retired to Stavelot in 674, with two servants. He spent seven years there in strict observance of the rules of the monastery. But the murder of Ebroin led to a new revolution of the wheel of fortune. Pepin of Herstal became mayor of the palace, Faramund was expelled from Maastricht, and Lambert reinstated (681). Lambert at once set to work preaching the gospel among the people of Campine. With his great zeal and gentleness he won their hearts, and brought them in crowds to baptism. He did not rest until he had planted churches throughout the region and place a clergy in them.

Lambert’s relatives resented every invasion of the lands belonging to the see; and when some wrong was done to the possessions of Lambert by two members of a powerful family, the members of his family fell upon them and killed them. One Dodo, a relative of the slain men, was an attendant on Pepin of Herstal. He and the rest of his clan resolved on revenge. Hearing that Lambert was at Liege, they went there and murdered him. This is the story as given by the two earliest biographers of Lambert; but later it was thought his fame might be enhanced if a different motive was alleged. It was pretended that Lambert had denounced the intercourse of Pepin of Herstal with Alpheid, the sister of his wife Plectrudis; and that in revenge for this, Alpheid set the murderers to kill the bishop. But there is no evidence that this was the case.

Bede (Beda), an English priest and monk, whose surname is the Venerable, and who was very well versed in the Latin and Greek tongue to no mean extent, performed no small measure of labor for the Christian life in the Year of the Lord 692. At the age of thirty he was consecrated as a priest; and although he was born in the most remote corner of the earth, yet he was illustrious throughout the world; for he did not cease preaching, teaching and writing even in his old age. For 59 years he studied and wrote books, and was never found idle. Because of his courage and honorable life he was surnamed the Venerable. Being a highly educated man, he wrote many things of good Christian service. He died at the age of 72, full of good works. The learned men, Strabo and Haymus, were his brothers.

Bede (also Beda or Baeda) (672/673-735), English historian and theologian. Of Bede, commonly called ‘the Venerable Bede,’ almost all that we know is contained in the short autobiographical notice which he has appended to his Ecclesiastical History:

This much concerning the ecclesiastical history of Britain, and especially of the race of the English, I, Baeda, a servant of Christ and priest of the monastery of the blessed apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, which is at Wearmouth and Jarrow, have with the Lord’s help composed, so far as I could gather it, either from ancient documents, or from the tradition of the elders, or from my own knowledge. I was born in the territory of the said monastery, and at the age of seven I was, by the care of my relations, given to the reverend Abbot Benedict (Biscop), and afterwards to Ceolfried, to be educated. From that time, I have spent the whole of my life within that monastery, devoting all my pains to the study of the Scriptures; and amid the observance of monastic discipline, and the daily charge of singing to the church, it has ever been my delight to learn or teach or write. In my 19th year I was admitted to the diaconate, in my 30th to the priesthood, etc. From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) 59th year, I have endeavored for my own use and for that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scriptures, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation.

Then follows a list of his works that had been composed up to that time. As the Ecclesiastical History was written in 731, we obtain the following dates for the principal events in Bede’s uneventful life: birth 672-673; priest 702-703.

It is in his works that we must look to know Bede. They fall into three classes: (1) scientific; (2) historical; (3) theological. The first comprises works on grammar, one on natural phenomena, and two on chronology and the calendar. These last were inspired largely by the Paschal question, which was the subject of bitter controversy between the Roman and Celtic churches in the 7th century. They form a natural transition to the second class. In this the chief place is held by the Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. By this Bede has justly earned the title of the Father of English History, and by it, almost exclusively he is known to others than professed students. His style is simple and unaffected and he has shown unusual conscientiousness in collecting and setting forth his material, distinguishing between what he believed to be the fact, and what he regarded only as rumor or tradition.

Several quaint legends have been handed down as to the origin of the epithet “venerable”, generally attached to his name; but probably it is a mere survival of a title commonly given to priests in his day. It has given rise to a false idea that he lived to a great age—some say 90. He was probably 63 when he died.

The body of Saint Benedict is said to have been stolen at this time from Monte Cassino and carried to Gaul. Or, as others write, it was carried from Monte Cassino to the Florentine (Floriacenum) Monastery together with his sister, Scholastica by a monk named Aigulfus.[The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the .]

Pepin (Pipinus), a duke and governor of Austrasia, or, as others will have it, of Austeria, nicknamed the Ancient or the Short, laid the foundation for occupying the kingdom of France; and with him the celebrated name of Carolingian had its beginning. For when he learned that Bertari (Bertarium), an ignoble man (of whom Theodoric, the king of France, made use) was hated by the people, he assembled a mighty army and marched into Gaul and routed Theodoric and Bertari who had come forth to meet him. When Bertari fled, Theodoric pronounced Pepin the victor, took him home with him and made a ruler of him Now when peace was restored in the kingdom, Pepin put a friend of his clan in charge, and returned to his home. And he reigned there another seven years.

Pepin: The Merovingian successors of Dagobert I were weak and insignificant—mere phantoms of royalty. They were called Rois-faineants (‘Do-nothing-kings’) – a designation fully expressing their character for the next century. The real power was exercised by the bishops and nobles, and particularly by the king’s minister, the Mayor of the Palace. He was a noble chosen by his order to be the king’s advisor in peace and the commander of the royal army in war, for the purpose of aiding the nobles in their efforts for the restriction of the royal power. Under the feeble Merovingian kings who succeeded Dagobert I, the Mayors of the Palace were the real sovereigns of France. One of the greatest of these rulers was Pepin d’Heristal, grandson of Pepin of Landen. After becoming the real ruler of the kingdom as the Duke of Austrasia, he vanquished the Neustrian nobility at Testry in 687; and thus having inflicted the death-blow upon Merovingian royalty, he made the office of Mayor of the Palace hereditary in his family, and made himself master of France which he governed for 27 years with vigor, prudence and success. His victory established the supremacy of the Teutonic or Germanic element in Gaul. Pepin assumed the title of Duke of the Franks, while the Merovingian king was shown to the people once a year at the Camp de Mars, but was kept in a kind of mild captivity at other times. Pepin d’Heristal died 714. The lineage of the Carolingian Mayors of the Palace is as follows:

  • Arnulf, bishop of Metz, and his brother Pepin of Landen, Mayors of Dagobert I.
  • Ansegisil, espoused to Pepin’s daughter Begga.
  • Pepin of Heristal, who died CE 714.
  • Charles Martel, that is, Charles the Hammer.
  • Pepin the Short, king of France after 754. With him the Carolingian kings begin.