First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Pope Donus, a Roman whose father was Maurice, was pope at the time that Grimoald, the king of the Lombards, died. In the same year occurred great and mighty rains; and many people were struck by lightning and killed; and the grain and the fruits on the farms dried up and wasted away. This Donus was a virtuous man, both in the sanctity of his life and in his teachings. In the Boethian (Boeciano) monastery he seized a number of Syrian monks who had held with the Nestorian heretics; and he punished them and dispersed them into various monasteries. He restored obedience to the papal see by the churches of Ravenna, which had seceded from the Roman Church. He also gave aid to many churches in revenues and improvements. He finally died in the 5th year, 5th month and 10th day of his pontificate, and was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the third day of the Ides of April. From his death the bishop’s chair was vacant two months and sixteen days.[Donus succeeded Adeodatus as pope in 676, retaining the see not for the the 5 years listed by the , but, according to the , only for 1 year 5 months and 10 days. During that time, if Anasthasius is correct, Reparatus, new bishop of Ravenna, after having for some time maintained his independence, submitted himself to Rome.]

Year of the World 5863

Year of Christ 664

Pope Agatho the First, a Sicilian, was elevated from monk to pope. He was so pious that with his kiss he instantly cured and cleansed a leper. He was so mild and good that he permitted no man to leave him in sorrow. With the consent and sanction of the emperor, who was not unlike him in morale, he held a council at Constantinople, touching the Monothelite heretics; but postponed it until the emperor Constantine returned from the war. As soon as he returned, and the Saracens whom he fought had been rendered taxable and tributary to the Roman Empire, this pope Agatho sent a bishop and a deacon to Constantinople. They were kindly received by Constantine, who admonished them to abandon their disputations and dissensions and bring unity to the two churches. Agatho died in the second year, sixth month and fifteenth day of his pontificate, at the time when eclipses of sun and moon were followed by a pestilence.[Agatho succeeded to the pontificate in 678. Emperor Constantine made overtures for the restoration of that unity which had long been disturbed by dissensions between the patriarchs of Rome and Constantinople on the Monothelite question. The reconciliation now took place according to imperial request. Agatho sent bishops and clergy as his representatives to attend a general council at Constantinople (Sixth General Council, 680-1), armed with a synodal epistle from himself. These representatives took an active part in the council proceedings condemning the Monothelite doctrines and their principal supporters, including Bishop Honorius who was denounced as a heretic. At this Council the head of the Roman see received that title of an ecumenical pope, or universal bishop, which two of his predecessors had condemned when applied to a patriarch of Constantinople. Agatho’s compliance was repaid by the emperor’s agreeing to forego, in future, his claim to a fee for imperial confirmation of Roman bishop.]

Leo, the second pope of that name, a Sicilian whose father was Paul, a man highly learned in the Latin and Greek tongues, was so well informed and experienced in music that he wrote the music for the Psalms, and reduced the hymns to better harmony. He ordained that in the mass the peace[Pax Vobiscum is Latin for, ‘Peace be with you,’ a form of salutation frequently used in the office of the ancient Christian church. First: It was usual for the bishop to salute the people in this form at his first entrance into the church. This is mentioned by Chrysostom, who derives it from apostolic practice. Secondly: The reader began the reading of the lessons with this form. The Third Council of Carthage took this privilege away from the reader and gave it to the deacons, or other superior ministers of the church. Thirdly: In many places the sermon was introduced with this form of salutation, and often ended with it. Fourthly: It was always used at the consecration of the Eucharist; and lastly at the dismissal of the congregation. Whenever pronounced by the officiating minister, the people always answered, ‘And with your spirit.’ Chrysostom explains the original intent through an ancient custom in the days of the apostles, when the rulers of the Church had the gift of inspiration, for the people to say to the preacher, ‘Peace be with your spirit’: thereby acknowledging that they were under the guidance of the Spirit of God. In the English liturgy an equivalent salutation is used, namely, ‘The Lord be with you’; to which the people answer, ‘And with your (thy) spirit’.] should be given to the people. He accepted the decrees of the Sixth Council, and denounced those whom the Council had condemned with the sanction of the emperor. He permitted baptism on any day, as necessity might require. He also ordained that one elevated to the office of archbishop should not pay a fee for the pallium,[Pall, or Pallium, signifies a cloak thrown over the shoulders. It afterward came to denote a sort of cape, and from this came the ecclesiastical designation in the western church. It was originally only a stole wound round the neck, with the ends hanging down behind and before. The pall was part of the imperial habit, and was originally granted by the emperors to the patriarchs. Thus Constantine gave the use of the pall to the bishop of Rome; and Anthimus, patriarch of Constantinople, being ousted from his see, is said to have returned the pall to Justinian; which implies that he had received it from him. And the reason of the royal consent in this manner seems to be because it was high treason to wear any part of the imperial habit without license. In later years, when the Roman see had carried its authority to the highest pitch, Innocent III in the Lateran Council, in 1215, decreed the pall a mark and distinction, intimating the plenitude of the apostolic power, and that neither the function nor title of archbishop should be assumed without it; and this, not only when a bishop was preferred to archbishop, but likewise in translations, or removals of archbishops from one see to another. It was likewise decreed that every archbishop be buried in his pall so that his successor might make no use of it, but be obliged to apply to the pope for another. By this means the court of Rome brought vast sums of money into its coffers. An archbishop of the Roman church, although consecrated and in possession, cannot before he has petitioned for, and received and paid for the pallium, either call himself archbishop or perform such acts of importance as summoning a council, or visiting his province.] or other office of the church. If only this were observed at the present day, for through such payments evils spring up daily.[One of the extremely rare personal comments by Schedel in the , in this case provoked by his anger over the practice of simony in the late 15th century.] Leo, the good and mild man, died in the tenth month of his pontificate, and was buried, mourned by mankind as a faithful father to all, in the Basilica of Peter on the fourth day of the Kalends of July. After his death the bishop’s seat was vacant for 11 months and 21 days.[Leo II was elected to the pontificate, and confirmed in his election by Constantine, under the title of “The most holy and blessed archbishop of old Rome, and universal pope,” in the year 682. In an epistle to the emperor this pontiff solemnly accepted the decrees of the Sixth General Council, and denounced, among other heretics, his predecessor Honorius, as having failed to purify his apostolic Church by apostolic doctrine, but rather, by base teachers, having polluted its previously unspotted faith. He repeated the same emphatic condemnation of Honorius in epistles to the bishop of Spain, to a nobleman of that country, and to the king Erwig. In return the emperor subjugated the archbishop of Ravenna to Rome, and decreed that every newly elected archbishop of that see should in future be consecrated according to the Roman customs. On this occasion Leo reversed the law of Gregory I, that a bishop about to be consecrated should not pay any fee to the ecclesiastical offices of Rome for the pall; but he forbade (as his predecessor Adeodatus had also done) the annual commemoration of the archbishop Maurice, who had so resolutely maintained his independence of Rome. Thus the ancient rights of the archbishop of Ravenna were entirely taken away. The bishop of Rome, in union with the emperor, and in a good understanding with the Greek Church, was more than a match for such an opponent.]

Year of the World 5883

Year of Christ 684

Pope Benedict (Benedictus) the Younger or the Second, a Roman whose father was John (Joanne), and pope, was a soldier of Christ from youth, and, so zealously devoted himself to the Holy Scriptures that he was held in exceptional esteem for his learning, ability, and practice in divine matters, as well as on account of his graciousness, goodness and mercy toward mankind, particularly the poor. By the piety of this man Constantine was so moved that he sent him a confirmation to the effect that all mankind regard him who was thus elected pope by the clergy, the people, and the nobles, as the true vicar and ruler of the Christian faith. He improved many churches, and died in the tenth month and twelfth day of his pontificate, and was buried at Saint Peter’s on the Ides of May. And he, since his life was dear to everyone, was celebrated by everyone as a saint, deservedly so for his beneficent human nature. After his death the seat was vacant for two months and fifteen days.[Benedict II succeeded Leo in 683, but his consecration was delayed for a year after his election, waiting for the imperial confirmation. It was probably the frequent occurrence of such delays that led Constantine to ordain that in the future newly-elected bishops be consecrated immediately without waiting for such confirmation. This, however, did not dispense with the necessity of confirmation, for confirmation as declared necessary by succeeding emperors. Constantine regarded Benedict as his personal friend.]

Pope John (Ioannes) the Fifth, a Syrian of Antioch whose father was Cyriacus, was elected pope at the time of Constantine’s death. He was a man of exceptional Christian life, mild, and possessed of wisdom in the Scriptures. He was elected by the people and consecrated in the Church of Salvatore, which is called Constantiniana at the Lateran, in the same manner as Pope Leo II—by three bishops, namely, of Ostia (Hostiensi), Porto (Portuensi) and Velitrae (Veliterno), a custom which was observed by his successors. After having written a booklet on the pallium, he died in the first year of his pontificate, and was buried at Saint Peter’s on the 4th day of the Nones of August. After his death seat was vacant two months and 18 days.[John V, a Syrian by birth, was papal legate to the Sixth Ecumenical Council held at Constantinople in 680. He succeeded Benedict II as pope in 685, retaining the office for a year.]