First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO C verso

Nuremberg is a city very much celebrated throughout Germany, as well as among foreign people; and it is extensively visited. It is a celebrated manufacturing center of Germany, and is adorned with beautiful public and private buildings. A very old royal castle, located on a hill (or mount) dominates the city, and from it one has a view of the city and beyond. Some are of the opinion that the city has its name from this castle.[Castle in German is ‘burg.’] Some say that the city was built by Tiberius Nero, the emperor, after Regensburg was built; or that it was called Neronesberg after Drusus Nero, his brother, who fought the Germans; for Tiberius the emperor’s paternal line, is from the family of Tiberius Nero.

The origin and name of Nuremberg are both involved in obscurity. The forms of the name – Nourenberg, Nourimperc, Nuernberg, Nuremberc, etc. – have resulted in many speculations as to origin and history. Our author has drawn upon the name of Drusus Nero (Neronesberg); and, enlarging upon the probable origin of the city, states that it has been attributed to a camp or citadel established there by Tiberius Claudius Nero (Neronesberg), and named for himself. However, there is no evidence of Roman colonization. The Nero’s castle (or Norix Tower) theory is but another speculation. The Heidenturm – the Pagan Tower of the Castle – is so called from some carvings on its walls, which were once called idols. One writer maintains that this was an ancient temple to Diana, insisting that the carvings are figures of dogs and two male figures with clubs, who must be Hercules and his son Noricus—hence Norixberg. However, the figures are not dogs but lions, and the male figures are saints or Israelite kings, and not pagan images. Others suggest that Noriker, driven out by the Huns, settled here and laid the foundation of the city. There is no authority to support these speculations, many of which are forced and unnatural. Chroniclers seem to have proceeded on the theory that origins must be accounted for in some manner, though the question may be of little consequence and the facts of history offer no solution.

As Cecil Headlam, in The Story of Nuremberg, observes, the history of the city begins in the year 1050, the silence regarding the place indicating that the castle did not exist until 1025 and was probably built between that year and 1050. On the latter date Henry III called a council of Bavarian nobles "in fundo suo Nourinberc."

As Suetonius Tranquillus writes, Livia was pregnant by Tiberius, and had also born him a son before that, when he was obliged to give her up at the request of Octavian. He died soon thereafter. Two sons survived him, namely Tiberius and Drusus, surnamed Nero after him.[Livia Drusilla, daughter of Livius Drusus Claudianus, was married first to Tiberius Claudius Nero and afterwards to Augustus, who compelled her husband to divorce her in 38 BCE. She had already born her husband one son, the future emperor Tiberius, and at the time of her marriage with Augustus she was six months pregnant with another child, Drusus. She had no children by Augustus, but retained his affections until her death. It is believed she caused the two grandsons of Augustus to be poisoned to secure the succession for her own children. She was even suspected of having hastened the death of Augustus. When her son Tiberius took the throne she attempted to secure an equal share in the government, but this he would not brook. He commanded her to retire from public affairs, and soon even displayed hatred toward her. She died in 29 CE.] According to the Sabine tongue, Nero means strong or strenuous. Afterwards Tiberius conducted successive wars against Burgundy and France, which had become restless through the incursions of the barbarians and the dissensions among their own rulers, and against the Rhaetians (Rheticum) and the Vindelici, and in Pannonia and in Germany. In the same wars he defeated the Alpine nations of the Rhaetians and the Vindelici, and in Pannonia the Brenni and the Dalmatians. In the German wars he carried off into Gaul forty thousand who had surrendered, settling them permanently on the shores of the Rhine. For these achievements he joyfully returned to Rome to celebrate his triumph with all the evidences of victory. His glory and might were thus greatly enhanced. He subjugated all Greece, the interior of Italy, the kingdoms of Noricum, Thrace, and Macedonia, and the lands lying between the Danube and the Adriatic. Claudius Tiberius Nero (as Eutropius[Eutropius, the Roman historian, held the office of secretary under Constantine the Great. He was patronized by Julian the Apostate, whom he accompanied in the Persian expedition. He is the author of a brief compendium of Roman history in ten books, from the foundation of the city to the accession of Valens in 364 CE. He appears to have drawn on the best authorities, and he executed his task with care. His work was much used by medieval historians and compilers (e.g., our chronicler, Hartmann Schedel).] states) was a man of ability in the art of war, and was fortunate before he assumed the throne. He contrived to have the cities named after himself.[For Tiberius Claudius Nero see Folio XCVI recto.] The most ancient books of history call this citadel a Norican castle. The Romans, in order to avoid being overrun by their enemies, who maintained themselves in the mountains, built citadels and castles on the mountains in Noricum and in many regions of Germany. The city has a single elevation, upon which the castle was built for its protection. And although (as the highly celebrated Pope Pius II writes of the city), there is a doubt whether it is Franconian or Bavarian, yet its name indicates that it belongs to Bavaria, for it is called Noremberg, the equivalent of Norixborg, and the region between the Danube and Nuremberg is called the "Norckaw." However, the city lies in the bishopric of Bamberg, which belongs to Franconia. Nevertheless the Nurembergers neither wished to be considered Bavarians nor Franconians, but a distinct people. The city is divided into two parts by a river called the Pegnitz. We pass from one part to the other by beautiful stone bridges erected over the river. The city is built on sandy arid soil, and in consequence its people are industrious craftsmen. All are either ingenious workmen, inventors, and masters of various wonderful and subtle arts and crafts, useful and ornamental, or are enterprising merchants and manufacturers. The city is by some regarded as modern, for little is found about it in the writings of the ancients, and no manner of foot prints or indications of age appear in it except the aforesaid citadel and some houses, which are not a matter of wonder to anyone. This is also true of many other cities, not only in Germany but in Italy and other countries, and of Rome, the most celebrated city in the world, of whose origin, age and founders much of a doubtful nature appears to have been written by the historians. However, it is known that Nuremberg flourished in the time of Charlemagne. For later Charlemagne, king of the Franks, determined to elevate and increase the churches, and to enlarge the Roman Empire. And he subdued the Saxons, brought the Britons and Gauls into alliance, and made peace with Tassilo, the Bavarian duke, according to the wishes of Pope Adrian. But as Tassilo would not appear in person, nor send citizens as sureties, Charles declared war against him, leading his forces into Bavaria, and dividing the people into three regions; and he ordered the Austrians (Austrasios), Thueringians (Turingos), and Saxons to encamp on the Danube, while his son Pepin (Pipinus) remained with the Italian forces at Trient (Tridentum). But Charles kept ward with one-third of the forces at Nuremberg and the vicinity; and he built a small chapel, which Pope Leo III (who followed him to Paderborn (Padebrunam) in Saxony), on his return to Rome, dedicated in honor of Saint Catherine the virgin and martyr; and it is now called after the old prince.[Charlemagne (724-814), was king of the Franks from 800-814 CE, and so we must regard the statement that Nuremberg flourished in his time as merely legendary. There is a story that he visited Nuremberg, but as suggested by Cecil Headlam, "He, you may be sure, was lost in the woods while hunting near Nuremberg, and passed all night alone, unhurt by wild beasts. As a token of gratitude for God’s manifest favor, he caused a chapel to be built on the spot. The chapel stands to this day – a twelfth-century building – but no matter! For did not Otto I, as our chroniclers tell us, attend mass in St. Sebald’s Church in 970, although St. Sebald’s Church cannot have been build till a century later?"] Some say that once upon a time this city was under the power of the noble lord, Albrecht, a count of the Francks, and that after his death (for he was slain by the emperor Ludwig (Ludovico) pursuant to the treachery of Hatto, bishop of Mainz) it became subject to Rome. Since that time it remained attached to the Roman Empire with great fidelity and without dissension; and it served the Roman kings with a high degree of faith and loyalty. The city suffered heavy oppression and damage during the quarrels of the Roman emperors, particularly in the reign of Henry (Heinrico) the Fourth, whose son through divine vengeance (as one says), persecuted him with war. As the Nurembergers remained loyal to the father,